25 Years IWH

Professor Dr Udo Ludwig

Professor Dr Udo Ludwig
Current Position

since 1/92

Economist in the Department of Macroeconomics

Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) – Member of the Leibniz Association

Research Interests

  • business cycle research and research on economic growth in a national and regional context
  • input-output analyses
  • studies on structural change of Germany's economy after 1945 - a comparison between East Germany's centrally planned economy and West Germany's market economy

Your contact

Professor Dr Udo Ludwig
Professor Dr Udo Ludwig
Mitglied - Department Macroeconomics
Send Message +49 345 7753-754

Publications

Recent Publications

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The Restructuring of the East German Economy

Udo Ludwig

in: Schneider, Jürgen (Hrsg.): Einigkeit, Recht und Freiheit. 25 Jahre deutsche Wiedervereinigung (1990-2015). Eine ordnungs-theoretische Analyse, Beiträge zur Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte. Band 132.3, Stuttgart , 2017

Abstract

The paper investigates the institutional tasks and the real economic results of the restructuring of the former centrally planned East German economy from 1990 until 2015. The focus is put on the privatization of the factories, the modernization of the production capacities and the development of competitive enterprises. It shows the reasons for unbalances between production and demand as well as between resources and use of public finance. Moreover structural deficiencies of catching up are discussed.

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The Restructuring of the Agricultural Sector in Eastern Germany

Udo Ludwig

in: Schneider, Jürgen (Hrsg.): Einigkeit, Recht und Freiheit. 25 Jahre deutsche Wiedervereinigung (1990-2015). Eine ordnungs-theoretische Analyse, Beiträge zur Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte. Band 132.3, Stuttgart , 2017

Abstract

The paper deals with the restructuring of the East German agricultural sector. In terms of macroeconomic indicators it shows how the sector was able to successfully catching up in the economy. It finds that the restructured agricultural enterprises benefit from the modernization of their capital stocks and the economies of scale in the production of plants on large areas. As a result they outdo their competitors in Western Germany in terms of unit labor costs and per capita output. 

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The Macroeconomic Development of the GDR until 1989

Udo Ludwig

in: Schneider, Jürgen (Hrsg.): Die Ursachen für den Zusammenbruch der Sowjetunion und der DDR (1945-1990). Eine ordnungstheoretische Analyse, Beiträge zur Wirtschafts- u. Sozialgeschichte. Band 132.2. Stuttgart , 2017

Abstract

The paper analyzes the crucial events and political strategies driving the economic history of the former GDR. Applying the growth accounting model I estimate the impact of labor and capital inputs as wells as of the technological progress on GDP growth in different time periods. The main finding is the dominant role of total factor productivity in economic growth only during the economic reforms in the second halve of the 60ies.

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Refereed Publications

Can R&D Subsidies Counteract the Economic Crisis? – Macroeconomic Effects in Germany

Hans-Ulrich Brautzsch Jutta Günther Brigitte Loose Udo Ludwig Nicole Nulsch

in: Research Policy , No. 3, 2015

Abstract

During the economic crisis of 2008 and 2009, governments in Europe stabilized their economies by means of fiscal policy. After decades of absence, deficit spending was used to counteract the heavy decline in demand. In Germany, public spending went partially into R&D subsidies in favor of small and medium sized enterprises. Applying the standard open input–output model, the paper analyzes the macroeconomic effects of R&D subsidies on employment and production in the business cycle. Findings in the form of backward multipliers suggest that R&D subsidies have stimulated a substantial leverage effect. Almost two thirds of the costs of R&D projects are covered by the enterprises themselves. Overall, a subsidized R&D program results in a production, value added and employment effect that amounts to at least twice the initial financing. Overall, the R&D program counteracts the decline of GDP by 0.5% in the year 2009. In the year 2010 the effects are already procyclical since the German economy recovered quickly. Compared to the strongly discussed alternative uses of subsidies for private consumption, R&D spending is more effective.

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The Skills Balance in Germany’s Import Intensity of Exports: An Input-Output Analysis

Udo Ludwig Hans-Ulrich Brautzsch

in: Intereconomics , No. 2, 2014

Abstract

In the decade prior to the economic and financial crisis, Germany’s net exports increased in absolute terms as well as relative to the growing level of import intensity of domestically produced export goods and services. This article analyses the direct and indirect employment effects induced both by exports as well as by of the import intensity of the production process of export goods and services on the skills used. It shows that Germany’s export surpluses led to positive net employment effects. Although the volume of imports of intermediate goods increased and was augmented by the rise in exports, it could not undermine the overall positive employment effect.

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International Fragmentation of Production and the Labour Input into Germany’s Exports – An Input-Output-analysis

Hans-Ulrich Brautzsch Udo Ludwig

in: Structural Change and Economic Dynamics , 2011

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Working Papers

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International Fragmentation of Production and the Labour Input into Germany’s Exports – An Input-Output-analysis

Hans-Ulrich Brautzsch Udo Ludwig

in: IWH Discussion Papers , No. 14, 2011

Abstract

The import penetration of exports has become a topic of public debate, particularly in the context of Germany’s position as one of the world’s leading exporters. The growth in the volume of intermediate products purchased from abroad for subsequent processing into export goods in Germany seems to be undermining the importance of exports as a driver of domestic production and employment. The gains that arise from an increase in exports seem to have been offset by the losses caused by the crowding out of local production by imports. Empirical evidence on the impact of this international integration of the goods market on the German labour market is ambiguous. Short-term negative effects on employment are claimed to be offset by the long-term benefit that the jobs lost in the short run will eventually be replaced by higher-skilled jobs with better perspectives. Against this background, the following hypothesis is tested empirically: Germany is poor in natural resources, but rich in skilled labour. In line with the Heckscher- Ohlin theory, Germany should therefore specialize in the production of export goods and services that are relatively intensive in these factors and should import those goods and services that are relatively intensive in unskilled labour. The empirical part of the paper deals with the extent of the German export penetration by imports. At first, it analyses by what ways imports are affecting the exports directly and indirectly and shows the consequences of import penetration of exports for the national output and employment. Secondly, consequences for employment are split in different skill types of labour. These issues are discussed with the standard open static inputoutput- model. The data base is a time series of official input-output tables. The employment effects for Germany divided by skill types of labour are investigated using skill matrices generated by the authors.

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Der Exportsektor im ostdeutschen Verarbeitenden Gewerbe und seine Bedeutung für das betriebliche Wachstum - eine Auswertung von Mikrodaten der amtlichen Statistik und einer IWH-Industrieumfrage -

Brigitte Loose Udo Ludwig

in: IWH Discussion Papers , No. 169, 2003

Abstract

This paper deals with the presence of East German manufacturers in foreign product markets. The following questions are discussed: Which factories sell their products abroad? What influences the export activities? Hypotheses are built on the basis of different trade theories, such as the relative position of the enterprises in their home market, the cumulation of learning effects in production and sales, the saturation of the domestic market and others. Individual data sets from industrial surveys for 1995 and 2000 are used to reveal the relationship between the company’s technical as well as institutional characteristics and their participation in export activities. Bivariate and multivariate approaches are applied. Additionally, a sample of enterprises has been asked to assess their export activities.

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Vierteljährliche Entstehungsrechnung des Bruttoinlandsprodukts für Ostdeutschland: Sektorale Bruttowertschöpfung

Hans-Ulrich Brautzsch Udo Ludwig

in: IWH Discussion Papers , No. 164, 2002

Abstract

Data regarding the development of macroeconomic production and employment are essential for the political decision process. Especially timely available information is a critical issue. Reliable short run data are not reported for East Germany yet. Because of data limitations for the past quarterly sectoral series of production and employment are derived from annual national accounts data using a set of indicators by branches. Indicators have been tested and cover working hours and sales, among others. For the period from 1992 to 2001 quarterly series for sectoral GDP are derived. A flash estimator for the overall macroeconomic performance is obtained through aggregation.

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