25 Years IWH

Innovation, Productivity, and Economic Dynamics

This research group belongs to the IWH Research Cluster Productivity and Innovation. The research group deals with the empirical analysis of the dynamics and determinants of economic development. Thereby, we recognize that these are individual heterogeneous firms with their specific capabilities to innovate and to efficiently allocate scarce resources that shape patterns at higher level of aggregation (e.g. cause structural change). While following a micro-level approach we aim at adding to the understanding of the actual mechanisms and dynamics in the development of economies as well as for the development of policy instruments. For instance, one of the current research projects deals with the effect of import competition on the productivity and innovating behaviour of firms as well as on the dynamic in and of industries

The research group works closely together with CompNet.

Research Cluster
Productivity and Innovation

Your contact

Dr Viktor Slavtchev
Dr Viktor Slavtchev
Mitglied - Department Structural Change and Productivity
Send Message +49 345 7753-743

Refereed Publications

cover_regional-studies.jpg

Determinants of the Efficiency of Regional Innovation Systems

Michael Fritsch Viktor Slavtchev

in: Regional Studies , No. 7, 2011

Abstract

Determinants of the efficiency of regional innovation systems, Regional Studies. This paper analyses differences in the efficiency of regional innovation systems. Alternative measures for the efficiency of regional innovation systems based on the concept of a knowledge production function are discussed. The empirical findings suggest that spillovers from within the private sector as well as from universities and other public research institutions have a positive effect on the efficiency of private sector research and development. It is particularly the intensity of interactions between private and public sector research and development that increases the efficiency. It is found that regions dominated by large establishments tend to be less efficient than regions with a lower average establishment size.

read publication

How Does Industry Specialization Affect the Efficiency of Regional Innovation Systems?

Michael Fritsch Viktor Slavtchev

in: The Annals of Regional Science , No. 1, 2010

Abstract

This study analyzes the relationship between the specialization of a region in certain industries and the efficiency of the region in generating new knowledge. The efficiency measure is constructed by relating regional R&D input and output. An inversely u-shaped relationship is found between regional specialization and R&D efficiency, indicating the presence of externalities of both Marshall and Jacobs’ type. Further factors influencing efficiency are externalities resulting from high R&D intensity of the local private sector as well as knowledge from local public research institutions. The impact of both the specialization and the additional factors is, however, different for regions at different efficiency levels.

read publication

Universities and Innovation in Space

Michael Fritsch Viktor Slavtchev

in: Industry and Innovation , No. 2, 2007

Abstract

We investigate the role of universities as a knowledge source for regional innovation processes. The contribution of universities is tested on the level of German NUTS‐3 regions (Kreise) by using a variety of indicators. We find that the intensity and quality of the research conducted by the universities have a significant effect on regional innovative output while pure size is unimportant. Therefore, a policy that wants to promote regional innovation processes by building up universities should place substantial emphasis on the intensity and quality of the research conducted there. We also find the effects of universities to be concentrated in space. Obviously, the geographical proximity to particular knowledge sources is important for regional innovative activities.

read publication

cover_small-business-economics.jpg

Parent Universities and the Location of Academic Startups

S. Heblich Viktor Slavtchev

in: Small Business Economics , No. 1, 2014

Abstract

Academic startups are thought to locate in their parent university’s home region because geographic proximity to a university facilitates access to academic knowledge and resources. In this paper we analyze the importance of a different channel, namely social ties between academic entrepreneurs and university researchers, for the access to academic knowledge and resources, and therefore for the location of the startups. We employ unique data on academic startups from regions with more than one university and find that only the parent university influences academic entrepreneurs’ decisions to stay in the region while other universities in the same region play no role. Our findings suggest that geographic proximity to a university may not per se guarantee access to knowledge and resources; social contacts are additionally required. The importance of social ties implies that academic knowledge and resources are not necessarily local public goods. This holds implications for universities’ role in stimulating regional development.

read publication

The Internationalization of Science and Its Influence on Academic Entrepreneurship

S. Krabel D. S. Siegel Viktor Slavtchev

in: The Journal of Technology Transfer , No. 2, 2012

Abstract

We examine whether scientists employed in foreign countries and foreign-educated native researchers are more “entrepreneurial” than their “domestic” counterparts. We conjecture that foreign-born and foreign-educated scientists possess broader scientific skills and social capital, which increases their likelihood that they will start their own companies. To test this hypothesis we analyze comprehensive data from researchers at the Max Planck Society in Germany. Our findings provide strong support for the conjecture that academic entrepreneurship can be stimulated by facilitating the mobility of scientists across countries.

read publication

Working Papers

How Does Industry Specialization Affect the Efficiency of Regional Innovation Systems?

Michael Fritsch Viktor Slavtchev

in: Jena Economic Research Papers, Nr. 2008-058 , No. 58, 2008

Abstract

This study analyzes the relationship between the specialization of a region in certain industries and the efficiency of the region in generating new knowledge. The efficiency measure is constructed by relating regional R&D input and output. An inversely u-shaped relationship is found between regional specialization and R&D efficiency, indicating the presence of externalities of both Marshall and Jacobs’ type. Further factors influencing efficiency are spillovers within the private sector as well as from public research institutions. The impact of both the specialization and the additional factors is, however, different for regions at different efficiency levels.

read publication

Industry Specialization, Diversity and the Efficiency of Regional Innovation Systems

Michael Fritsch Viktor Slavtchev

in: Jena Economic Research Papers, Nr. 2007-018 , No. 18, 2007

Abstract

Innovation processes are characterized by a pronounced division of labor between actors. Two types of externality may arise from such interactions. On the one hand, a close location of actors affiliated to the same industry may stimulate innovation (MAR externalities). On the other hand, new ideas may be born by the exchange of heterogeneous and complementary knowledge between actors, which belong to different industries (Jacobs’ externalities). We test the impact of both MAR as well as Jacobs’ externalities on innovative performance at the regional level. The results suggest an inverted u-shaped relationship between regional specialization in certain industries and innovative performance. Further key determinants of the regional innovative performance are private sector R&D and university-industry collaboration.

read publication

Measuring the Efficiency of Regional Innovation Systems – An Empirical Assessment

Michael Fritsch Viktor Slavtchev

in: Freiberg Working Papers, Nr. 08-2006 , No. 8, 2006

Abstract

We measure the efficiency of regional innovation systems (RIS) in Germany by means of a knowledge production function. This function relates private sector Research and Development (R&D) in a region to the number of inventions that have been registered by residents of that region. Two approaches are followed. First, it is assumed that differences in the productivity of private sector R&D between regions affect the slope of the KPF, which represents the marginal productivity of R&D input. The second approach assesses regional differences within the framework of a stochastic frontier knowledge production function. This approach mainly reveals differences with regard to the intercept of the knowledge production function and, therefore, with regard to the average productivity. We compare the results of both approaches and discuss a number of critical issues such as the properties of the distribution of efficiencies, the appropriate size of RIS, and how to deal with the issue of spatial autocorrelation.

read publication

The Role of Regional Knowledge Sources for Innovation – An Empirical Assessment

Michael Fritsch Viktor Slavtchev

in: Freiberg Working Papers, Nr. 15-2005 , No. 15, 2005

Abstract

We investigate the contribution of different inputs, particularly different knowledge sources, on regional patenting output in the framework of a knowledge production function. The knowledge sources included are R&D employment, size of public research institutions by field of research (budget), amount of university external research funds from private firms, public departments, German Science Foundation (DFG), and from other sources. The contribution of these knowledge sources is tested systematically on the level of German districts (Kreise) by including the respective information for the particular region and for adjacent regions. One main finding is that the quality of the university research makes some contribution to regional innovation while the mere size of the universities is unimportant. Differences in the effect on innovative output can be found according to academic disciplines and type of university.

read publication

Universities and Innovation in Space

Michael Fritsch Viktor Slavtchev

in: Freiberg Working Papers, Nr. 15-2006 , No. 15, 2006

Abstract

We investigate the role of universities as a knowledge source for regional innovation processes. The contribution of universities is tested on the level of German NUTS-3 regions (Kreise) by using a variety of indicators. We find that the intensity and quality of the research conducted by the universities have a significant effect on regional innovative output while pure size is unimportant. Therefore, a policy that wants to promote regional innovation processes by building up universities should place substantial emphasis on the intensity and quality of the research conducted there.

read publication
Mitglied der Leibniz-Gemeinschaft LogoTotal-Equality-LogoWeltoffen Logo