Ökonometrische Methoden für wirtschaftliche Prognosen

Die Forschungsgruppe gehört zum IWH-Forschungscluster Gesamtwirtschaftliche Dynamik und Stabilität. Der Forschungsschwerpunkt der Gruppe liegt in der Entwicklung ökonometrische Methoden für Kurzfristprognosen (Reduzierte-Form-Modelle), für Regionalisierung und für Langfristprojektionen sowie für strukturelle Prognose- und Simulationsmodelle (DSGE-Modelle). Ferner erstellt sie ökonometrische Hintergrundanalysen für die Prognosetätigkeit der Forschungsgruppe Makroökonomische Analysen und Prognosen. Im Rahmen von Drittmittelprojekten wurde verschiedene makroökonomische Modelle, bspw. für die Volkswagen Financial Services AG oder im Rahmen von GIZ-Projekten für die Wirtschaftsministerien in Kirgistan und Tadschikistan sowie das Institut für makroökonomische Prognosen und Forschung (IFMR) in Usbekistan entwickelt.

IWH-Datenprojekt: IWH Real-time Database

Forschungscluster
Gesamtwirtschaftliche Dynamik und Stabilität

Ihr Kontakt

Dr. Katja Heinisch
Dr. Katja Heinisch
Mitglied - Abteilung Makroökonomik
Nachricht senden +49 345 7753-836

PROJEKTE

11.2015 ‐ 12.2016

Beschäftigung und Entwicklung in der Republik Usbekistan

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH

Förderung einer nachhaltigen wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung in ausgewählten Regionen Usbekistans

Dr. Katja Heinisch

05.2016 ‐ 05.2016

Rahmenbedingungen und Finanzierungsmöglichkeiten für die Entwicklung des Privatsektors in Tadschikistan

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH

Dr. Katja Heinisch

07.2016 ‐ 12.2017

Klimaschutz und Kohleausstieg: Politische Strategien und Maßnahmen bis 2030 und darüber hinaus

Umweltbundesamt (UBA)

Dr. Katja Heinisch

02.2016 ‐ 04.2016

Makroökonomische Reformen und umwelt- und sozialverträgliches Wachstum in Vietnam

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH

Dr. Katja Heinisch

Personen

Referierte Publikationen

Flow of Conjunctural Information and Forecast of Euro Area Economic Activity

Katja Drechsel L. Maurin

in: Journal of Forecasting , Nr. 3, 2011

Abstract

Combining forecasts, we analyse the role of information flow in computing short-term forecasts up to one quarter ahead for the euro area GDP and its main components. A dataset of 114 monthly indicators is set up and simple bridge equations are estimated. The individual forecasts are then pooled, using different weighting schemes. To take into consideration the release calendar of each indicator, six forecasts are compiled successively during the quarter. We found that the sequencing of information determines the weight allocated to each block of indicators, especially when the first month of hard data becomes available. This conclusion extends the findings of the recent literature. Moreover, when combining forecasts, two weighting schemes are found to outperform the equal weighting scheme in almost all cases. Compared to an AR forecast, these improve by more than 40% the forecast performance for GDP in the current and next quarter.

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The Financial Crisis from a Forecaster's Perspective

Katja Drechsel Rolf Scheufele

in: Kredit und Kapital , Nr. 1, 2012

Abstract

This paper analyses the recession in 2008/2009 in Germany. This recession is very different from previous recessions in particular regarding their causes and magnitude. We show to what extent forecasters and forecasts based on leading indicators fail to detect the timing and the magnitude of the recession. This study shows that large forecast errors for both expert forecasts and forecasts based on leading indicators resulted during this recession which implies that the recession was very difficult to forecast. However, some leading indicators (survey data, risk spreads, stock prices) have indicated an economic downturn and hence, beat univariate time series models. Although the combination of individual forecasts provides an improvement compared to the benchmark model, the combined forecasts are worse than several individual models. A comparison of expert forecasts withthe best forecasts based on leading indicators shows only minor deviations. Overall, the range for an improvement of expert forecasts in the crisis compared to indicator forecasts is small.

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The Performance of Short-term Forecasts of the German Economy before and during the 2008/2009 Recession

Katja Drechsel Rolf Scheufele

in: International Journal of Forecasting , Nr. 2, 2012

Abstract

The paper analyzes the forecasting performance of leading indicators for industrial production in Germany. We focus on single and pooled leading indicator models both before and during the financial crisis. Pairwise and joint significant tests are used to evaluate single indicator models as well as forecast combination methods. In addition, we investigate the stability of forecasting models during the most recent financial crisis.

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An Evolutionary Algorithm for the Estimation of Threshold Vector Error Correction Models

Makram El-Shagi

in: International Economics and Economic Policy , Nr. 4, 2011

Abstract

We develop an evolutionary algorithm to estimate Threshold Vector Error Correction models (TVECM) with more than two cointegrated variables. Since disregarding a threshold in cointegration models renders standard approaches to the estimation of the cointegration vectors inefficient, TVECM necessitate a simultaneous estimation of the cointegration vector(s) and the threshold. As far as two cointegrated variables are considered, this is commonly achieved by a grid search. However, grid search quickly becomes computationally unfeasible if more than two variables are cointegrated. Therefore, the likelihood function has to be maximized using heuristic approaches. Depending on the precise problem structure the evolutionary approach developed in the present paper for this purpose saves 90 to 99 per cent of the computation time of a grid search.

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Inflation Expectations: Does the Market Beat Professional Forecasts?

Makram El-Shagi

in: The North American Journal of Economics and Finance , Nr. 3, 2011

Abstract

The present paper compares expected inflation to (econometric) inflation forecasts based on a number of forecasting techniques from the literature using a panel of ten industrialized countries during the period of 1988 to 2007. To capture expected inflation, we develop a recursive filtering algorithm which extracts unexpected inflation from real interest rate data, even in the presence of diverse risks and a potential Mundell-Tobin-effect. The extracted unexpected inflation is compared to the forecasting errors of ten econometric forecasts. Beside the standard AR(p) and ARMA(1,1) models, which are known to perform best on average, we also employ several Phillips curve based approaches, VAR, dynamic factor models and two simple model avering approaches.

Publikation lesen

Arbeitspapiere

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Is East Germany Catching Up? A Time Series Perspective

Bernd Aumann Rolf Scheufele

in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere , Nr. 14, 2009

Abstract

This paper assesses whether the economy of East Germany is catching up with the West German region in terms of welfare. While the primary measure for convergence and catching up is per capita output, we also look at other macroeconomic indicators such as unemployment rates, wage rates, and production levels in the manufacturingsector. In contrast to existing studies of convergence between regions of reunified Germany, our approach is purely based upon the time series dimension and is thus directly focused on the catching up process in East Germany as a region. Our testing setup includes standard ADF unit root tests as well as unit root tests that endogenously allow for a break in the deterministic component of the process. In our analysis, we find evidence of catching up for East Germany for most of the indicators. However, convergence speed is slow, and thus it can be expected that the catching up process will take further decades until the regional gap is closed.

Publikation lesen

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Bottom-up or Direct? Forecasting German GDP in a Data-rich Environment

Katja Drechsel Rolf Scheufele

in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere , Nr. 7, 2013

Abstract

This paper presents a method to conduct early estimates of GDP growth in Germany. We employ MIDAS regressions to circumvent the mixed frequency problem and use pooling techniques to summarize efficiently the information content of the various indicators. More specifically, we investigate whether it is better to disaggregate GDP (either via total value added of each sector or by the expenditure side) or whether a direct approach is more appropriate when it comes to forecasting GDP growth. Our approach combines a large set of monthly and quarterly coincident and leading indicators and takes into account the respective publication delay. In a simulated out-of-sample experiment we evaluate the different modelling strategies conditional on the given state of information and depending on the model averaging technique. The proposed approach is computationally simple and can be easily implemented as a nowcasting tool. Finally, this method also allows retracing the driving forces of the forecast and hence enables the interpretability of the forecast outcome.

Publikation lesen

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Outperforming IMF Forecasts by the Use of Leading Indicators

Katja Drechsel Sebastian Giesen Axel Lindner

in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere , Nr. 4, 2014

Abstract

This study analyzes the performance of the IMF World Economic Outlook forecasts for world output and the aggregates of both the advanced economies and the emerging and developing economies. With a focus on the forecast for the current and the next year, we examine whether IMF forecasts can be improved by using leading indicators with monthly updates. Using a real-time dataset for GDP and for the indicators we find that some simple single-indicator forecasts on the basis of data that are available at higher frequency can significantly outperform the IMF forecasts if the publication of the Outlook is only a few months old.

Publikation lesen

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Should We Trust in Leading Indicators? Evidence from the Recent Recession

Katja Drechsel Rolf Scheufele

in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere , Nr. 10, 2010

Abstract

The paper analyzes leading indicators for GDP and industrial production in Germany. We focus on the performance of single and pooled leading indicators during the pre-crisis and crisis period using various weighting schemes. Pairwise and joint significant tests are used to evaluate single indicator as well as forecast combination methods. In addition, we use an end-of-sample instability test to investigate the stability of forecasting models during the recent financial crisis. We find in general that only a small number of single indicator models were performing well before the crisis. Pooling can substantially increase the reliability of leading indicator forecasts. During the crisis the relative performance of many leading indicator models increased. At short horizons, survey indicators perform best, while at longer horizons financial indicators, such as term spreads and risk spreads, improve relative to the benchmark.

Publikation lesen

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The Financial Crisis from a Forecaster’s Perspective

Katja Drechsel Rolf Scheufele

in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere , Nr. 5, 2011

Abstract

This paper analyses the recession in 2008/2009 in Germany, which is very different from previous recessions, in particular regarding its cause and magnitude. We show to what extent forecasters and forecasts based on leading indicators fail to detect the timing and the magnitude of the recession. This study shows that large forecast errors for both expert forecasts and forecasts based on leading indicators resulted during this recession which implies that the recession was very difficult to forecast. However, some leading indicators (survey data, risk spreads, stock prices) have indicated an economic downturn and hence, beat univariate time series models. Although the combination of individual forecasts provides an improvement compared to the benchmark model, the combined forecasts are worse than several individual models. A comparison of expert forecasts with the best forecasts based on leading indicators shows only minor deviations. Overall, the range for an improvement of expert forecasts during the crisis compared to indicator forecasts is relatively small.

Publikation lesen
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