24.04.2017 • 22/2017
Höhere Kapitalforderungen: Am Ende leiden die Unternehmen
61 europäische Banken sollten bis 2012 ihre Kapitaldecke erhöhen, um ausreichend Puffer für zukünftige Krisen aufzubauen. Wie die Studie der Forschergruppe um Reint E. Gropp vom Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH) zeigt, setzten die Banken diese Forderung auch in die Tat um – allerdings nicht, indem sie sich frisches Kapital beschafften, sondern indem sie ihr Kreditangebot verringerten. Die Folge: geringeres Bilanz-, Investitions- und Umsatzwachstum von Unternehmen, die größere Kredite von diesen Banken hielten.
Lend Global, Fund Local? Price and Funding Cost Margins in Multinational Banking
Review of Finance,
In a proposed model of a multinational bank, interest margins determine local lending by foreign affiliates and the internal funding by parent banks. We exploit detailed parent-affiliate-level data of all German banks to empirically test our theoretical predictions in pre-crisis times. Local lending by affiliates depends negatively on price margins, the difference between lending and deposit rates in foreign markets. The effect of funding cost margins, the gap between local deposit rates faced by affiliates abroad and the funding costs of their parents, on internal capital market funding is positive but statistically weak. Interest margins are central to explain the interaction between internal capital markets and foreign affiliates lending.
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Exchange Rate Regime, Real Misalignment and Currency Crises
Based on 69 sample countries, this paper examines the effect of macroeconomic fundamentals on real effective exchange rates (REER) in these sample countries. Using the misalignment of actual REER from its equilibrium level, we have estimated the factors explaining the extent of currency over- or under-valuation. Overall, we find that the higher the flexibility of the currency regime, the lower is the misalignment. The estimates are robust to different sub-samples of countries. We then explore the impact of such misalignment on the probability of a currency crisis in the next period, indicating the extent to which misalignment could be used as a leading indicator of a potential crisis. This paper thus makes a new contribution to the debate on the choice of exchange rate regime by bringing together real exchange rate misalignment and currency crisis literature.
ICT Adoption and Heterogeneity in Production Technologies: Evidence for Chilean Retailers
Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics,
The adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) can have far-reaching effects on the nature of production technologies. Because ICT adoption is incomplete, especially in developing countries, different groups of firms will have different production technologies. We estimate a latent class stochastic frontier model, which allows us to test for the existence of multiple production technologies across firms and consider the associated implications for efficiency measures. We use a unique data set of Chilean retailers, which includes detailed information on ICT adoption. We find three distinct production technologies. The probability of membership in a more productive group is positively related to ICT use.
Has the Euro Increased International Price Elasticities?
This paper analyzes the role of common data problems when identifying structural breaks in small samples. Most notably, we survey small sample properties of the most commonly applied endogenous break tests developed by Brown, Durbin, and Evans (1975) and Zeileis (2004), Nyblom (1989) and Hansen (1992), and Andrews, Lee, and Ploberger (1996). Power and size properties are derived using Monte Carlo simulations. Results emphasize that mostly the CUSUM type tests are aﬀected by the presence of heteroscedasticity, whereas the individual parameter Nyblom test and AvgLM test are proved to be highly robust. However, each test is signiﬁcantly aﬀected by leptokurtosis. Contrarily to other tests, where skewness is far more problematic than kurtosis, it has no additional eﬀect for any of the endogenous break tests we analyze. Concerning overall robustness the Nyblom test performs best, while being almost on par to more recently developed tests in terms of power.
Do All Countries Grow Alike?
Journal of Development Economics,
This paper investigates the driving forces of output change in 77 countries during the period 1970–2000. A flexible modeling strategy is adopted that accounts for (i) the inefficient use of resources, and (ii) different production technologies across countries. The proposed model can identify technical, efficiency, and input change for each of three endogenously determined regimes. Membership in these regimes is estimated, rather than determined ex ante. This framework enables explorations into the determinants of output growth and convergence issues in each regime.
Technology Clubs, R&D and Growth Patterns: Evidence from EU Manufacturing
European Economic Review,
This paper investigates the forces driving output change in a panel of EU manufacturing industries. A flexible modeling strategy is adopted that accounts for: (i) inefficient use of resources and (ii) differences in the production technology across industries. With our model we are able to identify technical, efficiency, and input growth for endogenously determined technology clubs. Technology club membership is modeled as a function of R&D intensity. This framework allows us to explore the components of output growth in each club, technology spillovers and catch-up issues across industries and countries.