Analysis of location of large-area shopping centres - A probalistic gravity model for the Halle-Leipzig area
Jahrbuch für Regionalwissenschaft,
A profund analysis of large-area shopping centres from the perspective of retail, but also of communes is of importance for the choice of site selection. In central Germany, the Halle–Leipzig area represents an example of strong competitiveness between the different participants in retail. The analysis described in this article is based on the MCI Model of Nakanishi and Cooper, which is used to investigate the regional influences of nine large shopping centres in the area of interest. The analysis demonstrates, that the studied shopping centres intensely affect the structure of retail in the region and exert a strong influence on the structural weakness of the surrounding cities due to their relative success in comparison to other retail locations city centres. An important volume of the turnover of the administrative districts flows to the analysed shopping centres. On the other hand, the article describes the influence of a systematic location decision on the reachable turnover potential of the modelized large-area shopping centres among each other. The shopping centres Saale Park (today Nova Eventis) near Leipzig and the Paunsdorf Center in Leipzig show the biggest influence on the competing centres.
Non-take-up Behavior of Social Assistance in Germany - An Empirical Investigation of Unexpected Reactions
Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik,
Concerning German social assistance earlier studies calculate a non-take-up rate of more than 50 percent. This contradicts intuition. Using data from the low-income panel we estimate eligibility and non-take-up rate more precisely. However, avoiding simulation errors of earlier studies reduces the rate only slightly. Therefore, we estimate a multiple probit model to explain the nontake- up behavior. Significant reasons are low claims, stigma and the expectation of a short life of eligibility. Additionally, we show a significant simultaneous relation between earned income and the tendency to participate in social assistance. The sign is negative in both directions.