Challenges for Formal Standardization: the Institutional Reforms 2008 – 2010 Reconsidered.
Standardization Research in Information Technology: New Perspectives,
This study considers the developments in international standardization over the last 20 years, particularly the status of formal standardization as compared with consortium-based industrial standardization. The report shows that the radical reform of the global formal standardization system that started in 2008, prompted by the loss of interest in formal standardization on the part of large corporations and the sometimes less than satisfactory outcomes from consortium-based industrial standardization in terms of competition and anti-trust considerations, has helped to compensate for the declining significance of national formal standardization. This specifically relates to national governments, and is to be regarded as a clearly positive development, from both the economic and the institutional and political points of view. Global public interests are now catered for by internet-supported information markets; in particular, online documentation has also enhanced the transparency of the formal standardization process and provided freedom of access for small and medium sized companies in particular, irrespective of geographical region. Finally, the study shows that the debate that took place in and around the year 2004 between Europe and the USA regarding the path towards the internationalization of formal standardization processes was superfluous, incomplete and even counterproductive, owing to the hardening of the political divisions between the two sides.
Investment and Internal Finance: Asymmetric Information or Managerial Discretion?
International Journal of Industrial Organization,
This paper examines the investment-cash flow sensitivity of publicly listed firms in The Netherlands. Investment-cash flow sensitivities can be attributed to overinvestment resulting from the abuse of managerial discretion, but also to underinvestment due to information problems. The Dutch corporate governance structure presents a number of distinctive features, in particular the limited influence of shareholders, the presence of large blockholders, and the importance of bank ties. We expect that in The Netherlands, the managerial discretion problem is more important than the asymmetric information problem. We use Tobin's Q to discriminate between firms with these problems, where LOW Q firms face the managerial discretion problem and HIGH Q firms the asymmetric information problem. As hypothesized, we find substantially larger investment-cash flow sensitivity for LOW Q firms. Moreover, specifically in the LOW Q sample, we find that firms with higher (bank) debt have lower investment-cash flow sensitivity. This finding shows that leverage, and particularly bank debt, is a key disciplinary mechanism which reduces the managerial discretion problem.
Comply or Explain - Die Akzeptanz von Corporate Governance Kodizes in Deutschland und Großbritannien
Beiträge zum Transnationalen Wirtschaftsrecht,
Die zahlreichen Unternehmenszusammenbrüche, Bilanzskandale sowie der Absturz der Indizes an den Kapitalmärkten zu Beginn des neuen Jahrtausends verstärkten die Diskussion um die Unternehmensführung und -kontrolle in Deutschland und führten schließlich vor nunmehr fast drei Jahren zur Verabschiedung des deutschen Corporate Governance Kodex. Dieser Verhaltenskodex, der sich an börsennotierte Gesellschaften richtet, greift internationale Kritikpunkte an der deutschen Unternehmensverfassung auf und soll somit den Standort Deutschland für ausländische Investoren attraktiver machen und das Vertrauen der Anleger zurückgewinnen. Ob dies gelungen ist, soll in dieser Studie ebenso untersucht werden, wie die Frage, ob und in welchen Bereichen der Kodex mit seinen Anforderungen von den Unternehmen akzeptiert wird...