Immigration and Entrepreneurship in the United States
American Economic Review: Insights,
Immigration can expand labor supply and create greater competition for native-born workers. But immigrants may also start new firms, expanding labor demand. This paper uses U.S. administrative data and other data resources to study the role of immigrants in entrepreneurship. We ask how often immigrants start companies, how many jobs these firms create, and how these firms compare with those founded by U.S.-born individuals. A simple model provides a measurement framework for addressing the dual roles of immigrants as founders and workers. The findings suggest that immigrants act more as "job creators" than "job takers" and that non-U.S. born founders play outsized roles in U.S. high-growth entrepreneurship
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Selbständigkeit nach der Wiedervereinigung
In: Dossier "Lange Wege der Deutschen Einheit", Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung,
Die Zahl der Selbstständigen in Ostdeutschland (ohne Berlin) beläuft sich derzeit auf rund 600 000 und ist das Ergebnis eines über die Jahre zunehmenden Trends. Selbständigkeit wurde in der DDR kaum ein Platz eingeräumt. Zum Zeitpunkt der Wiedervereinigung besaß Ostdeutschland eine Selbständigenquote von nur rund 2,2 Prozent. Dieser Anteil hat sich 2018 auf 9,2 Prozent erhöht. Damit übersteigt die Selbständigenquote Ostdeutschlands diejenige Westdeutschlands seit dem Jahr 2013. Es gilt hierbei jedoch zu beachten, dass das Wachstum der Selbständigenanzahl insbesondere in Ostdeutschland von den Solo-Selbstständigen getragen war. Zudem bestehen im Hinblick auf die sektorale Zusammensetzung mit einem geringeren Anteil an wissensintensiven Wirtschaftszweigen als in Westdeutschland noch Unterschiede zwischen Ost- und Westdeutschland. Aktuelle Untersuchungen zeigen jedoch auch, dass sich die Situation der Selbstständigen in Deutschland zum aktuellen Zeitpunkt deutlich verbessert hat.
Demographic Change Dossier ...
Age and High-Growth Entrepreneurship
American Economic Review: Insights,
Many observers, and many investors, believe that young people are especially likely to produce the most successful new firms. Integrating administrative data on firms, workers, and owners, we study start-ups systematically in the United States and find that successful entrepreneurs are middle-aged, not young. The mean age at founding for the 1-in-1,000 fastest growing new ventures is 45.0. The findings are similar when considering high-technology sectors, entrepreneurial hubs, and successful firm exits. Prior experience in the specific industry predicts much greater rates of entrepreneurial success. These findings strongly reject common hypotheses that emphasize youth as a key trait of successful entrepreneurs.
The Economic Impact of Changes in Local Bank Presence
This study analyzes the economic consequences of changes in the local bank presence. Using a unique data set of banks, firms and counties in Poland over the period 2009–14, it is shown that changes strengthening the relationship banking model are associated with local labour market improvements and easier small and medium-sized enterprise access to bank debt. However, only the appearance of new, more aggressive owners of large commercial banks stimulates new firm creation.
20.02.2018 • 2/2018
TV boosts entrepreneurial identity
Entrepreneurship is a key driver of development in free-market economies – and TV is one channel in transporting and promoting an entrepreneurial identity or ‘culture’, as IWH economist Viktor Slavtchev and his co-author Michael Wyrwich find in a recent study. For their analysis, they compare – for the period after 1990 – the entrepreneurship incidence among the inhabitants of East German regions that had West Ger¬man TV signal prior to 1990 to that of the inhabitants of regions without such a signal.
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TV and Entrepreneurship
IWH Discussion Papers,
We empirically analyse whether television (TV) can influence entrepreneurial identity and incidence. To identify causal effects, we utilise a quasi-natural experiment setting. During the division of Germany after WWII into West Germany with a free-market economy and the socialistic East Germany with centrally-planned economy, some East German regions had access to West German public TV that – differently from the East German TV – transmitted images, values, attitudes and view of life compatible with the free-market economy principles and supportive of entrepreneurship. We show that during the 40 years of socialistic regime in East Germany entrepreneurship was highly regulated and virtually impossible and that the prevalent formal and informal institutions broke the traditional ties linking entrepreneurship to the characteristics of individuals so that there were hardly any differences in the levels and development of entrepreneurship between East German regions with and without West German TV signal. Using both, regional and individual level data, we show then that, for the period after the Unification in 1990 which made starting an own business in East Germany, possible again, entrepreneurship incidence is higher among the residents of East German regions that had access to West German public TV, indicating that TV can, while transmitting specific images, values, attitudes and view of life, directly impact on the entrepreneurial mindset of individuals. Moreover, we find that young individuals born after 1980 in East German households that had access to West German TV are also more entrepreneurial. These findings point to second-order effects due to inter-personal and inter-generational transmission, a mechanism that can cause persistent differences in the entrepreneurship incidence across (geographically defined) population groups.