09.06.2016 • 22/2016
The German Economy Benefits from Strong Domestic Demand
In 2016, the moderate upswing of the German economy continues. Incomes grow due to the steady expansion in employment, and the fall in energy prices has propped up the purchasing power of private households. As a consequence, private consumption expands healthily; investment in housing is additionally stimulated by very low interest rates. Exports, however, expand only moderately, as the world economy is rather weak. All in all, the IWH forecasts the German GDP to expand by 1.8% in this year and by 1.6% in 2017.
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Effects of Urban Renewal on Non-subsidised Property Owners: Evidence from East Germany
Town Planning Review,
Urban renewal programmes intervene in the housing market by offering different kinds of subsidies that support the improvement of public spaces or selective demolition. The central aim of this paper is to disentangle the economic impact of these subsidies on property owners and investors by exploring the value of residential real estate. There is limited knowledge as to which type of owners benefit from such actions and whether they even benefit at all. One may expect that the indirect effects of a regime of regulation inspire more confidence in market recovery from the perspective of property owners. By using the theory of real options it is assumed that urban renewal raises the option premium of a property which in turn represents an opportunity to the owners to use and develop their property. This opportunity is based on expectations of higher revenues in the future. The hypothesis of an increasing option premium is explored using data from a large urban renewal programme in East Germany.
International Side-payments to Improve Global Public Good Provision when Transfers are Refinanced through a Tax on Local and Global Externalities
International Economic Journal,
This paper discusses a tax-transfer scheme that aims to address the under-provision problem associated with the private supply of international public goods and to bring about Pareto optimal allocations internationally. In particular, we consider the example of the global public good ‘climate stabilization’, both in an analytical and a numerical simulation model. The proposed scheme levies Pigouvian taxes globally, while international side-payments are employed in order to provide incentives to individual countries for not taking a free-ride from the international Pigouvian tax scheme. The side-payments, in turn, are financed via environmental taxes. As a distinctive feature, we take into account ancillary benefits that may be associated with local public characteristics of climate policy. We determine the positive impact that ancillary effects may exert on the scope for financing side-payments via environmental taxation. A particular attractive feature of ancillary benefits is that they arise shortly after the implementation of climate policies and therefore yield an almost immediate payback of investments in abatement efforts. Especially in times of high public debt levels, long periods of amortization would tend to reduce political support for investments in climate policy.
Venture Capitalists on Boards of Mature Public Firms
Review of Financial Studies,
Venture capitalists (VCs) often serve on the board of mature public firms long after their initial public offering (IPO), even for companies that were not VC-backed at the IPO. Board appointments of VC directors are followed by increases in research and development intensity, innovation output, and greater deal activity with other VC-backed firms. VC director appointments are associated with positive announcement returns and are followed by an improvement in operating performance. Firms experience higher announcement returns from acquisitions of VC-backed targets following the appointment of a VC director to the board. Hence, in addition to providing finance, monitoring and advice for small private firms, VCs play a significant role in mature public firms and have a broader influence in promoting innovation than has been established in the literature.
Economy Picking Up – Put Budget Surpluses To Good Use: Joint Economic Forecast Autumn 2013
Dienstleistungsauftrag des Bundesministeriums für Wirtschaft und Technologie,
The German economy is on the verge of an upturn driven by domestic demand. The improving global economic climate and decreasing uncertainty are fuelling investment. Private consumption is benefitting from favourable employment and income prospects. Real gross domestic product looks set to grow by 1.8 percent in 2014, after an increase of just 0.4 percent this year. Consumer prices are expected to rise by a moderate 1.6 percent this year and by 1.9 percent next year. The German public budget will continue to show a surplus.
Cluster Policies in the Federal States of Bavaria and Thuringia: Discrepancies between Practice and Theory
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
The contribution analyzes cluster policies pursued in the Federal States of Bavaria and Thuringia. The investigation is based on the exploration of government documents. In both countries cluster policy is target at strengthening competitiveness. The documents explored do not reveal an economic justification for cluster policy in the sense of eliminating market failures, e. g. externalities, information asymmetries and coordination failures. Therefore, it is unclear whether the support schemes under consideration really tie in with factors that hamper cluster evolution. Policies in both states support state-wider clusters and networks. The state-wide focus, however, might undervalue advantages of spatial proximity. As another critical point the ex-ante selection of industries or technologies eligible under cluster policy can be regarded. Despite readiness of considering new technologies etc., public administration generally suffers from a lack of information about the future development perspectives of industries and technologies. A way to mitigate the limited capability of public administration in terms of forecasting might be favoring economic support based on competition for the best concepts/projects instead of focusing on certain industries. Several support schemes offered by the Federal government in Germany are already competition-based. In Thuringia cluster policy is strongly motivated by several structural shortcomings, e. g. by the fragmented firm landscape mainly consisting of small units. Therefore, beyond cluster policy, the necessity will remain to abolish directly the structural shortcomings mentioned, especially by providing an economic environment that enhances firm growth.
Auswirkungen der aus dem Konjunkturpaket II für das Zentrale Innovationsprogramm Mittelstand (ZIM) bereitgestellten Mittel auf die konjunkturelle Entwicklung. Gutachten im Auftrag des Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWi)
The ZIM program (Zentrales Innovationsprogramm Mittelstand) is a technologically open program of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology to support small and medium enterprises and Science organizations in their research and innovation activities. It became operative July 1, 2008 and offers three program lines: individual projects, cooperative projects, and networks. In reaction to the global economic crisis the ZIM program was increased for the years 2009 and 2010 – in addition to the regulary scheduled 626 Million – by 900 Million Euro through the Konjunkturpaket II (KP II).
In this study, the analysis of the macroeconomic effects of the ZIM program in Germany has been carried out – first time in the evaluation of federal support programs for research and innovation – by the use of the input output method.
The pdf file includes an english summary with details about the study's results.