Household Indebtedness, Financial Frictions and the Transmission of Monetary Policy to Consumption: Evidence from China
Emerging Markets Review,
This paper studies the impact of household indebtedness on the transmission of monetary policy to consumption using the Chinese household-level survey data. We employ a panel smooth transition regression model to investigate the non-linear role of indebtedness. We find that housing-related indebtedness weakens the monetary policy transmission, and this effect is non-linear as there is a much larger counteraction of consumption in response to monetary policy shocks when household indebtedness increases from a low level rather than from a high level. Moreover, the weakened monetary policy transmission from indebtedness is stronger in urban households than in rural households. This can be explained by the investment good characteristic of real estate in China.
German Economy Recovers Surprisingly Quickly from Last Year’s Recession
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
The German economy recovers surprisingly quickly from last year’s recession. For this year, we expect GDP to grow by 3.5%. Next year, when GDP growth should reach a rate of 2%, the general government deficit is likely to fall below the 3% mark of the Stability and Growth pact – if the government indeed realizes the stabilization program it decided on this summer. Unemployment will continue to decline.
We see three main causes for this favorable development: first, the German economy benefits strongly from the high growth dynamics in emerging markets, since German firms are well positioned for producing investment goods that are particularly sought-after in these countries. Second, growing demand for labor in Germany means that employment and labor income is on the rise. Partly, this is the reward for a long time of low wage rises that have made labor in Germany competitive again. Third, the expansive monetary policy in the euro area is particularly stimulating since here debt levels of private households and firms are moderate and therefore do not dampen the stimulating effects of low interest rates, as they do in many euro area partner countries with highly indebted private and public agents.