Betriebliche Dynamiken und Beschäftigungsergebnisse

Firmengründungen und -schließungen sind in einer Marktwirtschaft für die Reallokation von Ressourcen, strukturellen Wandel und damit für die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung von zentraler Bedeutung und spielen vor allem im Hinblick auf die wirtschaftliche Transformation Ostdeutschlands eine zentrale Rolle. Gleichzeitig können die mit dem Strukturwandel verbundenen Arbeitsplatzverluste dramatische Folgen für betroffene Arbeitnehmer haben, wie z.B. Arbeitslosigkeit, Einkommensverluste oder eine geringere Arbeitsplatzqualität. Diese Forschungsgruppe untersucht mithilfe mikroökonometrischer Methoden Gründungen, Wachstumsprozesse und das Scheitern von Unternehmen, die Anzahl und Qualität der von Neugründungen geschaffenen Arbeitsplätze und die Folgen von Firmenschließungen für betroffene Arbeitnehmer und Arbeitnehmerinnen, vor allem in Bezug auf Arbeitsmarktergebnisse wie Beschäftigung und Löhne.

Forschungscluster
Produktivität und Innovationen

Ihr Kontakt

Dr. Daniel Fackler
Dr. Daniel Fackler
Mitglied - Abteilung Strukturwandel und Produktivität
Nachricht senden +49 345 7753-862

PROJEKTE

04.2016 ‐ 03.2019

Lohn- und Beschäftigungseffekte von Insolvenzen

Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)

Obwohl die Folgen von Insolvenzen für betroffene Arbeitnehmer und Arbeitnehmerinnen immer wieder Gegenstand öffentlicher Debatten sind (z.B. infolge der Insolvenz der Drogeriemarktkette Schlecker im Jahr 2012), ist die vorhandene empirische Evidenz dazu eher dürftig. Dies gilt in besonderem Maße für die Folgen von kleinbetrieblichen Insolvenzen, die weitaus häufiger stattfinden als öffentlichkeitswirksame Großinsolvenzen. Ziel dieses Projekts ist es daher, grundlegende Erkenntnisse über Insolvenzen und deren Folgen für betroffene Arbeitnehmer zu gewinnen.

Dr. Daniel Fackler

01.2018 ‐ 12.2018

IAB-Betriebspanel 2017

Bundesagentur für Arbeit

Dr. Eva Dettmann

Referierte Publikationen

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Women Move Differently: Job Separations and Gender

Boris Hirsch Claus Schnabel

in: Journal of Labor Research, Nr. 4, 2012

Abstract

Using a large German linked employer–employee data set and methods of competing risks analysis, this paper investigates gender differences in job separation rates to employment and nonemployment. In line with descriptive evidence, we find lower job-to-job and higher job-to-nonemployment transition probabilities for women than men when controlling for individual and workplace characteristics and unobserved plant heterogeneity. These differences vanish once we allow these characteristics to affect separations differently by gender. When additionally controlling for wages, we find that both separation rates are considerably lower and also significantly less wage-elastic for women than for men, suggesting an interplay of gender differences in transition behaviour and the gender pay gap.

Publikation lesen

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Works Councils and Establishment Productivity

Steffen Müller

in: Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Nr. 4, 2012

Abstract

Declining union density in many industrialized countries increases interest in alternative forms of employee representation, such as works councils. The German works council is one of the most powerful forms of worker representation in developed countries, but little is known of its causal effect on productivity. The author used a large linked employer-employee panel data set to examine this issue. Comparing firms with and without a works council, the author finds that establishments with a works council are on average 6.4% more productive; but he also presents evidence that this figure underestimates the true productivity effect of works councils.

Publikation lesen

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The Productivity Effect of Temporary Agency Work: Evidence from German Panel Data

Boris Hirsch Steffen Müller

in: The Economic Journal, Nr. 562, 2012

Abstract

This study investigates the effect of temporary agency work on the user firm’s productivity. We hypothesise that using temporary agency work to enhance numerical flexibility and to screen job candidates may increase productivity, whereas temporary workers’ lower firm-specific human capital and spillover effects on the user’s permanent employees may adversely affect productivity. Other than the sparse existing literature on this issue, we exploit a large panel data set and control for time-invariant and time-varying unobserved heterogeneity by using the system GMM estimator. We find a robust hump-shaped effect of the extent of temporary agency work on the user firm’s productivity.

Publikation lesen

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Do Women Benefit from Competitive Markets? Product Market Competition and the Gender Pay Gap in Germany

Boris Hirsch Michael Oberfichtner Claus Schnabel

in: Economics Bulletin, Nr. 2, 2012

Abstract

Using a large linked employer–employee dataset for Germany with a direct plant-level measure of product market competition and controlling for job-cell fixed effects, we investigate whether relative wages of women benefit from strong competition. We find that the unexplained gender pay gap is about 2.4 log points lower in West German plants that face strong product market competition than in those experiencing weak competition, whereas no such link shows up for East Germany.

Publikation lesen

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Works Councils and Firm Profits Revisited

Steffen Müller

in: British Journal of Industrial Relations, Nr. 1, 2011

Abstract

As they are employee associations, it is typically presumed that works councils redistribute economic rents from firm owners to workers. And indeed, the empirical literature suggests that German works councils reduce profits. The studies on the profitability effect of works councils mainly use self-reported subjective profit evaluations of managers as the dependent variable. I argue that these are poor measures of real profits. Newly available information on firms' capital stock allows me to revisit the profit effect now using an objective profit measure. When utilizing the subjective measure I find the standard results; with the objective measure, however, the works council effect on profits is positive and significant.

Publikation lesen

Arbeitspapiere

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Explaining Wage Losses after Job Displacement: Employer Size and Lost Firm Rents

Daniel Fackler Steffen Müller Jens Stegmaier

in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 32, 2017

Abstract

Why does job displacement, e.g., following import competition, technological change, or economic downturns, result in permanent wage losses? The job displacement literature is silent on whether wage losses after job displacement are driven by lost firm wage premiums or worker productivity depreciations. We therefore estimate losses in wages and firm wage premiums. Premiums are measured as firm effects from a two-way fixed-effects approach, as described in Abowd, Kramarz, and Margolis (1999). Using German administrative data, we find that wage losses are, on average, fully explained by losses in firm wage premiums and that premium losses are largely permanent. We show that losses in wages and premiums are minor for workers displaced from small plants and strongly increase with pre-displacement firm size, which provides an explanation for the large and persistent wage losses that have been found in previous studies mostly focusing on displacement from large employers.

Publikation lesen

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Identifying Bankruptcies in German Social Security Data

Daniel Fackler Eva Hank Steffen Müller Jens Stegmaier

in: FDZ-Methodenreport, Nr. 10, 2017

Abstract

In empirischen Studien über Firmenschließungen wird häufig die Notwendigkeit betont, zwischen verschiedenen Arten von Schließungen, z.B. freiwilligen und unfreiwilligen, zu unterscheiden. Dieser Methodenreport erläutert vor diesem Hintergrund, wie im Betriebs-Historik-Panel (BHP) Betriebsstillegungen aufgrund von Insolvenzen identifiziert werden können. Insolvenzen können im Gegensatz zu anderen Schließungen eindeutig als Ausdruck ökonomischen Scheiterns und somit als unfreiwillige Schließungen interpretiert werden. (Autorenreferat, IAB-Doku)

Publikation lesen

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Plant-level Employment Development before Collective Displacements: Comparing Mass Layoffs, Plant Closures, and Bankruptcies

Daniel Fackler Steffen Müller Jens Stegmaier

in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 27, 2016

Abstract

To assess to what extent collective job displacements can be regarded as unanticipated exogenous shocks for affected employees, we analyze plant-level employment patterns before bankruptcy, plant closure without bankruptcy, and mass layoff. Utilizing administrative data covering all West German private sector plants, we find no systematic employment reductions prior to mass layoffs, a strong and long-lasting reduction prior to closures, and a much shorter shadow of death preceding bankruptcy. Our analysis of worker flows underlines that bankruptcies seem to struggle for survival while closures follow a shrinking strategy. We conclude that the scope of worker anticipation of upcoming job loss is smallest for mass layoffs and largest for closures without bankruptcy.

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