Evaluierung von Subventionsprogrammen
Diese Forschungsgruppe untersucht die Effekte von Produktions- und Wissensnetzwerken auf die Produktivität von Unternehmen und Regionen. Darüber hinaus werden Wirkungen staatlicher Förderprogramme für Forschung und Entwicklung sowie regionalpolitischer Programme auf die Leistungsfähigkeit von Unternehmen und Regionen evaluiert.
ForschungsclusterInstitutionen und soziale Normen
09.2019 ‐ 09.2022
Etablierung einer evidenzbasierten Evaluationskultur für industriepolitische Fördermaßnahmen in Deutschland (EVA-KULT)
Europäischer Fonds für regionale Entwicklung (EFRE)
Das Vorhaben dient dem Ausbau des Zentrums für evidenzbasierte Politikberatung am Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH-CEP).
01.2018 ‐ 12.2020
Vernetzt wachsen - Innovatives Sachsen-Anhalt durch digitale Geschäftsmodelle (Kompetenzzentrum 4.0)
Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie (BMWi)
01.2017 ‐ 12.2018
Politische Partizipation in Ostdeutschland
Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie (BMWi)
12.2015 ‐ 11.2018
Sozioökonomische Effekte der Erforschung innovativer Ansätze für die POC-Diagnostik
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)
Teilvorhaben im Verbundprojekt “POC-Sensorplattform für chronisch-entzündliche Atemwegserkrankungen (EXASENS)”. Neun Leibniz-Institute arbeiten gemeinsam im Pilotprojekt EXASENS an der Erforschung einer Point-of-Care-Technologie zur Vorhersage und Diagnose von chronisch-entzündlichen Atemwegserkrankungen. Der Verbund wird vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) mit 6,25 Millionen Euro gefördert und liefert einen Beitrag zum Ausbau und zur Stärkung des Themenfeldes Gesundheitstechnologien.
Vgl. Pressemitteilung des Leibniz-Institut für Photonische Technologien (IPHT), Jena.
02.2017 ‐ 02.2018
Bedeutung außeruniversitärer Forschungseinrichtungen für die Entwicklung von Betrieben und Regionen
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)
01.2015 ‐ 12.2016
Evaluierung der GRW-Förderung in Sachsen-Anhalt
Does Intermunicipal Cooperation Increase Efficiency? A Conditional Metafrontier Approach for the Hessian Wastewater Sector
in: Local Government Studies, Nr. 1, 2018
This paper analyses the relationship between intermunicipal cooperation and efficiency of public service provision. Organisational arrangements of public service production, including self-provision, joint provision or contracting, affect incentives and internal transaction costs. Hence, cooperation gains from scale effects need to be balanced against technical inefficiencies. We analyse relative efficiency of wastewater disposal for German municipalities. We employ a conditional analysis in conjunction with a metafrontier approach to calculate relative efficiency measures and technology gap ratios controlling for organisational arrangements and further environmental variables. Jointly providing municipalities and contractor municipalities exhibit lower technical efficiency than self-providing and contracting municipalities. As confirmed by previous research, scale effects from cooperation and contracting apply to small municipalities primarily.
R&D Collaborations and the Role of Proximity
in: Regional Studies, Nr. 12, 2017
R&D collaborations and the role of proximity. Regional Studies. This paper explores the impact of proximity measures on knowledge exchange measured by granted research and development (R&D) collaboration projects in German NUTS-3 regions. The results are obtained from a spatial interaction model including eigenvector spatial filters. Not only geographical but also other forms of proximity (technological, organizational and institutional) have a significant influence on the emergence of collaborations. Furthermore, the results suggest interdependences between proximity measures. Nevertheless, the analysis does not show that other forms of proximity may compensate for missing geographical proximity. The results indicate that (subsidized) collaborative innovation activities tend to cluster.
Benchmark Value-added Chains and Regional Clusters in R&D-intensive Industries
in: International Regional Science Review, Nr. 5, 2017
Although the phase of euphoria seems to be over, policy makers and regional agencies have maintained their interest in cluster policy. Modern cluster theory provides reasons for positive external effects that may accrue from interaction in a group of proximate enterprises operating in common and related fields. Although there has been some progress in locating clusters, in most cases only limited knowledge on the geographical extent of regional clusters has been established. In the present article, we present a hybrid approach to cluster identification. Dominant buyer–supplier relationships are derived by qualitative input–output analysis from national input–output tables, and potential regional clusters are identified by spatial scanning. This procedure is employed to identify clusters of German research and development-intensive industries. A sensitivity analysis reveals good robustness properties of the hybrid approach with respect to variations in the quantitative cluster composition.
Joint R&D Subsidies, Related Variety, and Regional Innovation
in: International Regional Science Review, Nr. 3, 2017
Subsidies for research and development (R&D) are an important tool of public R&D policy, which motivates extensive scientific analyses and evaluations. This article adds to this literature by arguing that the effects of R&D subsidies go beyond the extension of organizations’ monetary resources invested into R&D. It is argued that collaboration induced by subsidized joint R&D projects yield significant effects that are missed in traditional analyses. An empirical study on the level of German labor market regions substantiates this claim, showing that collaborative R&D subsidies impact regions’ innovation growth when providing access to related variety and embedding regions into central positions in cross-regional knowledge networks.
Complex-task Biased Technological Change and the Labor Market
in: Review of Economic Dynamics, April 2017
In this paper we study the relationship between task complexity and the occupational wage- and employment structure. Complex tasks are defined as those requiring higher-order skills, such as the ability to abstract, solve problems, make decisions, or communicate effectively. We measure the task complexity of an occupation by performing Principal Component Analysis on a broad set of occupational descriptors in the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) data. We establish four main empirical facts for the U.S. over the 1980–2005 time period that are robust to the inclusion of a detailed set of controls, subsamples, and levels of aggregation: (1) There is a positive relationship across occupations between task complexity and wages and wage growth; (2) Conditional on task complexity, routine-intensity of an occupation is not a significant predictor of wage growth and wage levels; (3) Labor has reallocated from less complex to more complex occupations over time; (4) Within groups of occupations with similar task complexity labor has reallocated to non-routine occupations over time. We then formulate a model of Complex-Task Biased Technological Change with heterogeneous skills and show analytically that it can rationalize these facts. We conclude that workers in non-routine occupations with low ability of solving complex tasks are not shielded from the labor market effects of automatization.
flexpaneldid: A Stata Toolbox for Causal Analysis with Varying Treatment Time and Duration
in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 3, 2020
The paper presents a modification of the matching and difference-in-differences approach of Heckman et al. (1998) for the staggered treatment adoption design and a Stata tool that implements the approach. This flexible conditional difference-in-differences approach is particularly useful for causal analysis of treatments with varying start dates and varying treatment durations. Introducing more flexibility enables the user to consider individual treatment periods for the treated observations and thus circumventing problems arising in canonical difference-in-differences approaches. The open-source flexpaneldid toolbox for Stata implements the developed approach and allows comprehensive robustness checks and quality tests. The core of the paper gives comprehensive examples to explain the use of the commands and its options on the basis of a publicly accessible data set.
Identifying Cooperation for Innovation – A Comparison of Data Sources
in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 1, 2019
The value of social network analysis is critically dependent on the comprehensive and reliable identification of actors and their relationships. We compare regional knowledge networks based on different types of data sources, namely, co-patents, co-publications, and publicly subsidised collaborative Research and Development projects. Moreover, by combining these three data sources, we construct a multilayer network that provides a comprehensive picture of intraregional interactions. By comparing the networks based on the data sources, we address the problems of coverage and selection bias. We observe that using only one data source leads to a severe underestimation of regional knowledge interactions, especially those of private sector firms and independent researchers. The key role of universities that connect many regional actors is identified in all three types of data.
The Regional Effects of Professional Sports Franchises – Causal Evidence from Four European Football Leagues
in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 10, 2018
We use the locational pattern of clubs in four major professional football leagues in Europe to test the causal effect of changes in premier league membership on regional employment and output growth at the NUTS 3 level. We rely on the relegation mode of the classical round-robin tournament in the European model of sport to develop a regression-discontinuity design. The results indicate small and significant negative short-term effects on regional employment and output in the sports-related economic sector when clubs are relegated from the premier division of the respective football league. In addition, we find small negative effects on overall regional employment growth. However, total regional gross value added remains unaffected, indicating that in the main it is the less productive jobs that disappear in the short-term.
Who Benefits from GRW? Heterogeneous Employment Effects of Investment Subsidies in Saxony Anhalt
in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 27, 2017
The paper estimates the plant level employment effects of investment subsidies in one of the most strongly subsidized German Federal States. We analyze the treated plants as a whole, as well as the influence of heterogeneity in plant characteristics and the economic environment. Modifying the standard matching and difference-in-difference approach, we develop a new procedure that is particularly useful for the evaluation of funding programs with individual treatment phases within the funding period. Our data base combines treatment, employment and regional information from different sources. So, we can relate the absolute effects to the amount of the subsidy paid. The results suggest that investment subsidies have a positive influence on the employment development in absolute and standardized figures – with considerable effect heterogeneity.
Identifying the Effects of Place-based Policies – Causal Evidence from Germany
in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 18, 2016
The German government provides discretionary investment grants to structurally weak regions to reduce regional disparities. We use a regression discontinuity design that exploits an exogenous discrete jump in the probability of receiving investment grants to identify the causal effects of the investment grant on regional outcomes. We find positive effects for regional gross value-added and productivity growth, but no effects for employment and gross wage growth.