Innovation, Produktivität und wirtschaftliche Dynamik

Im Fokus dieser Forschungsgruppe steht die empirische Analyse der Dynamik und Determinanten der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung. Dabei wird soweit wie möglich anerkannt, dass es einzelne heterogene Unternehmen sind, die durch ihre individuellen Fähigkeiten, Innovationen hervorzubringen und Ressourcen effizient zu allokieren, die Entwicklung auf höherer Aggregationsebene bestimmen. Insgesamt kann die mikrofundierte Analyse zu einem besseren Verständnis der eigentlichen Mechanismen und der Dynamik der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung und somit zur Entwicklung geeigneter wirtschaftspolitischer Instrumente beitragen. Beispielsweise beschäftigt sich eins der aktuellen Projekte dieser Forschungsgruppe mit den Effekten von (Import-)Wettbewerb auf Produktivität und Innovationsverhalten von Unternehmen sowie auf die Entwicklung in und von Branchen.

Die Forschungsgruppe arbeitet eng mit CompNet zusammen.

Forschungscluster
Produktivität und Innovationen

Ihr Kontakt

Dr. Viktor Slavtchev
Dr. Viktor Slavtchev
Mitglied - Abteilung Strukturwandel und Produktivität
Nachricht senden +49 345 7753-743

PROJEKTE

09.2016 ‐

The Competitiveness Research Network (CompNet)

Mittelgeber: Europäische Zentralbank (EZB), Europäische Investitionsbank (EIB), Europäische Bank für Wiederaufbau und Entwicklung (EBRD), Tinbergen-Institut, Europäische Kommission.

The Competitiveness Research Network (CompNet) provides a forum for high level research and policy analysis in the areas of competitiveness and productivity. Its main activities include the regular updating of its micro-based competitiveness database for European countries, unprecedented in terms of coverage and cross-country comparability.

Professor Reint E. Gropp, Ph.D.

Referierte Publikationen

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Labor Market Power and the Distorting Effects of International Trade

Matthias Mertens

in: International Journal of Industrial Organization, Nr. 102562, 2020

Abstract

This article examines how final product trade with China shapes and interacts with labor market imperfections that create market power in labor markets and prevent an efficient market outcome. I develop a framework for measuring such labor market power distortions in monetary terms and document large degrees of these distortions in Germany's manufacturing sector. Import competition only exerts labor market disciplining effects if firms, rather than employees, possess labor market power. Otherwise, increasing export demand and import competition both fortify existing distortions, which decreases labor market efficiency. This widens the gap between potential and realized output and thus diminishes classical gains from trade.

Publikation lesen

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Criminal Network Formation and Optimal Detection Policy: The Role of Cascade of Detection

Liuchun Deng Yufeng Sun

in: Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, September 2017

Abstract

This paper investigates the effect of cascade of detection, how detection of a criminal triggers detection of his network neighbors, on criminal network formation. We develop a model in which criminals choose both links and actions. We show that the degree of cascade of detection plays an important role in shaping equilibrium criminal networks. Surprisingly, greater cascade of detection could reduce ex ante social welfare. In particular, we prove that full cascade of detection yields a weakly denser criminal network than that under partial cascade of detection. We further characterize the optimal allocation of the detection resource and demonstrate that it should be highly asymmetric among ex ante identical agents.

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The Effects of Local Elections on National Military Spending: A Cross-country Study

Liuchun Deng Yufeng Sun

in: Defence and Peace Economics, Nr. 3, 2017

Abstract

In this paper, we study the domestic political determinants of military spending. Our conceptual framework suggests that power distribution over local and central governments influences the government provision of national public goods, in our context, military expenditure. Drawing on a large cross-country panel, we demonstrate that having local elections will decrease a country’s military expenditure markedly, controlling for other political and economic variables. According to our preferred estimates, a country’s military expenditure is on average 20% lower if its state government officials are locally elected, which is consistent with our theoretical prediction.

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Support for Public Research Spin-offs by the Parent Organizations and the Speed of Commercialization

Viktor Slavtchev D. Göktepe-Hultén

in: The Journal of Technology Transfer, Nr. 6, 2016

Abstract

We empirically analyze whether support by the parent organization in the early (nascent and seed) stage speeds up the process of commercialization and helps spin-offs from public research organizations generate first revenues sooner. To identify the impact of support by the parent organization, we apply multivariate regression techniques as well as an instrumental variable approach. Our results show that support in the early stage by the parent organization can speed up commercialization. Moreover, we identify two distinct channels—the help in developing a business plan and in acquiring external capital—through which support by the parent organization can enable spin-offs to generate first revenues sooner.

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Regional Capital Flows and Economic Regimes: Evidence from China

Liuchun Deng Boqun Wang

in: Economics Letters, April 2016

Abstract

Using provincial data from China, this paper examines the pattern of capital flows in relation to the transition of economic regimes. We show that fast-growing provinces experienced less capital inflows before the large-scale market reform, contrary to the prediction of the neoclassical growth theory. As China transitioned from the central-planning economy to the market economy, the negative correlation between productivity growth and capital inflows became much less pronounced. From a regional perspective, this finding suggests domestic institutional factors play an important role in shaping the pattern of capital flows.

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Arbeitspapiere

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Effects of Entrepreneurship Education at Universities

S. Laspita H. Patzelt Viktor Slavtchev

in: Jena Economic Research Papers, Nr. 25, 2012

Abstract

This study analyzes the impact of entrepreneurship education at universities on the intentions of students to become entrepreneurs or self-employed in the short-term (immediately after graduation) and in the long-term (five years after graduation). A difference-in-differences approach is applied that relates changes in entrepreneurial intentions to changes in the attendance of entrepreneurship classes in the same period. To account for a potential bias due to self-selection into entrepreneurship classes, only individuals having no prior entrepreneurial intentions are analyzed. Our results indicate a stimulating effect of entrepreneurship education on students’ intentions to become entrepreneurs or self-employed in the long-term but a discouraging effect on their intentions in the short-term. These results support the conjecture that entrepreneurship education provides more realistic perspectives on what it takes to be an entrepreneur, resulting in ‘sorting’. Overall, the results indicate that entrepreneurship education may improve the quality of labor market matches, the allocation of resources and talent, and increase social welfare. Not distinguishing between short- and long-term intentions may lead to misleading conclusions regarding the economic and social impact of entrepreneurship education.

Publikation lesen

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The Impact of Government Procurement Composition on Private R&D Activities

Viktor Slavtchev S. Wiederhold

in: Jena Economic Research Papers, Nr. 36, 2011

Abstract

This paper addresses the question of whether government procurement can work as a de facto innovation policy tool. We develop an endogenous growth model with quality-improving in-novation that incorporates industries with heterogeneous innovation sizes. Government demand in high-tech industries increases the market size in these industries and, with it, the incentives for private firms to invest in R&D. At the economy-wide level, the additional R&D induced in high-tech industries outweighs the R&D foregone in all remaining industries. The implications of the model are empirically tested using a unique data set that includes federal procurement in U.S. states. We find evidence that a shift in the composition of government purchases toward high-tech industries indeed stimulates privately funded company R&D.

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How Does Industry Specialization Affect the Efficiency of Regional Innovation Systems?

Michael Fritsch Viktor Slavtchev

in: Jena Economic Research Papers, Nr. 2008-058, Nr. 58, 2008

Abstract

This study analyzes the relationship between the specialization of a region in certain industries and the efficiency of the region in generating new knowledge. The efficiency measure is constructed by relating regional R&D input and output. An inversely u-shaped relationship is found between regional specialization and R&D efficiency, indicating the presence of externalities of both Marshall and Jacobs’ type. Further factors influencing efficiency are spillovers within the private sector as well as from public research institutions. The impact of both the specialization and the additional factors is, however, different for regions at different efficiency levels.

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Hochschulen als regionaler Innovationsmotor? Innovationstransfer aus Hochschulen und seine Bedeutung für die regionale Entwicklung

Michael Fritsch Viktor Slavtchev N. Steigenberger

in: Arbeitspapier / Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, Nr. 158, 2008

Abstract

Innovation ist der wesentliche Motor wirtschaftlicher Entwicklung. Denn vor allem die Andersverwendung von Ressourcen, weniger deren Mehreinsatz führt zu Wachstum und Wohlstand. Aus diesem Grund stellt Innovation auch einen wichtigen Ansatzpunkt für eine auf Wachstum zielende Politik dar. Dies gilt sowohl auf gesamtwirtschaftlicher Ebene als auch für einzelne Branchen und Regionen. In Innovationsprozessen stellt Wissen die entscheidende Ressource dar. Wissen ist mehr als bloße Information. Es umfasst insbesondere auch die Fähigkeit, Informationen zu interpretieren und anzuwenden bzw. ihre Anwendbarkeit einzuschätzen. Wissen ist an Menschen gebunden und lässt sich vielfach nur in direktem persönlichen Kontakt weitergeben. Aus diesem Grund hat Wissen eine regionale Dimension: Die Verfügbarkeit von Wissen hängt davon ab, wo sich die Menschen aufhalten, die über dieses Wissen verfügen. Dies ist ein wesentlicher Grund dafür, dass die Fähigkeit zur Innovation von Region zu Region wesentliche Unterschiede aufweisen kann. Für eine Politik, die auf die Stärkung der Innovationsfähigkeit von Regionen gerichtet ist, kommt den öffentlichen Forschungseinrichtungen – Universitäten, Fachhochschulen und außeruniversitären Forschungsinstituten – aus mindestens zwei Gründen zentrale Bedeutung zu: Erstens verfügen die öffentlichen Forschungseinrichtungen in besonderem Maße über innovationsrelevantes Wissen. Ihre Kernaufgabe ist es, Wissen zu produzieren, zu sammeln und weiterzugeben. Zweitens ist der Bereich der öffentlichen Forschungseinrichtungen – im Gegensatz zur privaten Wirtschaft – von der Politik direkt gestaltbar. Aus diesen Gründen stellt die Steuerung des Hochschulsektors ein zentrales Handlungsfeld der Innovationspolitik dar.

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Industry Specialization, Diversity and the Efficiency of Regional Innovation Systems

Michael Fritsch Viktor Slavtchev

in: Jena Economic Research Papers, Nr. 2007-018, Nr. 18, 2007

Abstract

Innovation processes are characterized by a pronounced division of labor between actors. Two types of externality may arise from such interactions. On the one hand, a close location of actors affiliated to the same industry may stimulate innovation (MAR externalities). On the other hand, new ideas may be born by the exchange of heterogeneous and complementary knowledge between actors, which belong to different industries (Jacobs’ externalities). We test the impact of both MAR as well as Jacobs’ externalities on innovative performance at the regional level. The results suggest an inverted u-shaped relationship between regional specialization in certain industries and innovative performance. Further key determinants of the regional innovative performance are private sector R&D and university-industry collaboration.

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