Innovation, Produktivität und wirtschaftliche Dynamik

Im Fokus dieser Forschungsgruppe steht die empirische Analyse der Dynamik und Determinanten der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung. Dabei wird soweit wie möglich anerkannt, dass es einzelne heterogene Unternehmen sind, die durch ihre individuellen Fähigkeiten, Innovationen hervorzubringen und Ressourcen effizient zu allokieren, die Entwicklung auf höherer Aggregationsebene bestimmen. Insgesamt kann die mikrofundierte Analyse zu einem besseren Verständnis der eigentlichen Mechanismen und der Dynamik der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung und somit zur Entwicklung geeigneter wirtschaftspolitischer Instrumente beitragen. Beispielsweise beschäftigt sich eins der aktuellen Projekte dieser Forschungsgruppe mit den Effekten von (Import-)Wettbewerb auf Produktivität und Innovationsverhalten von Unternehmen sowie auf die Entwicklung in und von Branchen.

Die Forschungsgruppe arbeitet eng mit CompNet zusammen.

Forschungscluster
Produktivität und Innovationen

Ihr Kontakt

Dr. Viktor Slavtchev
Dr. Viktor Slavtchev
Mitglied - Abteilung Strukturwandel und Produktivität
Nachricht senden +49 345 7753-743

PROJEKTE

09.2016 ‐

The Competitiveness Research Network (CompNet)

Mittelgeber: Europäische Zentralbank (EZB), Europäische Investitionsbank (EIB), Europäische Bank für Wiederaufbau und Entwicklung (EBRD), Tinbergen-Institut, Europäische Kommission.

The Competitiveness Research Network (CompNet) provides a forum for high level research and policy analysis in the areas of competitiveness and productivity. Its main activities include the regular updating of its micro-based competitiveness database for European countries, unprecedented in terms of coverage and cross-country comparability.

Professor Reint E. Gropp, Ph.D.

Referierte Publikationen

cover_american-economic-journal-macroeconomics.jpg

Does the Technological Content of Government Demand Matter for Private R&D? Evidence from US States

Viktor Slavtchev S. Wiederhold

in: American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, Nr. 2, 2016

Abstract

Governments purchase everything from airplanes to zucchini. This paper investigates the role of the technological content of government procurement in innovation. In a theoretical model, we first show that a shift in the composition of public purchases toward high-tech products translates into higher economy-wide returns to innovation, leading to an increase in the aggregate level of private R&D. Using unique data on federal procurement in US states and performing panel fixed-effects estimations, we find support for the model's prediction of a positive R&D effect of the technological content of government procurement. Instrumental-variable estimations suggest a causal interpretation of our findings.

Publikation lesen

cover_small-business-economics.jpg

Parent Universities and the Location of Academic Startups

S. Heblich Viktor Slavtchev

in: Small Business Economics, Nr. 1, 2014

Abstract

Academic startups are thought to locate in their parent university’s home region because geographic proximity to a university facilitates access to academic knowledge and resources. In this paper we analyze the importance of a different channel, namely social ties between academic entrepreneurs and university researchers, for the access to academic knowledge and resources, and therefore for the location of the startups. We employ unique data on academic startups from regions with more than one university and find that only the parent university influences academic entrepreneurs’ decisions to stay in the region while other universities in the same region play no role. Our findings suggest that geographic proximity to a university may not per se guarantee access to knowledge and resources; social contacts are additionally required. The importance of social ties implies that academic knowledge and resources are not necessarily local public goods. This holds implications for universities’ role in stimulating regional development.

Publikation lesen

cover_regional-studies.jpg

Proximity and the Transfer of Academic Knowledge: Evidence from the Spatial Pattern of Industry Collaborations of East German Professors

Viktor Slavtchev

in: Regional Studies, Nr. 5, 2013

Abstract

Nähe und Übertragung von akademischem Wissen: Belege aus dem räumlichen Muster der Kooperation zwischen ostdeutschen Professoren und der Industrie, Regional Studies. Universitäten können die ökonomische Entwicklung von Regionen stimulieren, insbesondere durch Kooperation mit der lokalen Industrie. Die vorliegende Studie analysiert, wann solche Kooperationen lokal stattfinden. Die existierende Literatur deutet daraufhin, dass aufgrund von tacidem Wissen und der Bedeutung geographischer Nähe Kooperationen überwiegend lokal stattfinden. Die vorliegende Studie findet Evidenz, dass das räumliche Muster von Kooperationen zwischen Universitäten und der Industrie als Resultat eines komplexen Matching-Prozesses zwischen Partnern mit geeigneten Charakteristika betrachtet werden kann. Die Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass individuelle, relationale sowie institutionelle Charakteristika der Akteure eine wichtige Rolle für die Partnerwahl spielen. Demnach sind lokale Kooperationen nicht zwingend.

Publikation lesen

cover_journal-of-technology-transfer.jpg

The Internationalization of Science and Its Influence on Academic Entrepreneurship

S. Krabel D. S. Siegel Viktor Slavtchev

in: The Journal of Technology Transfer, Nr. 2, 2012

Abstract

We examine whether scientists employed in foreign countries and foreign-educated native researchers are more “entrepreneurial” than their “domestic” counterparts. We conjecture that foreign-born and foreign-educated scientists possess broader scientific skills and social capital, which increases their likelihood that they will start their own companies. To test this hypothesis we analyze comprehensive data from researchers at the Max Planck Society in Germany. Our findings provide strong support for the conjecture that academic entrepreneurship can be stimulated by facilitating the mobility of scientists across countries.

Publikation lesen

cover_regional-studies.jpg

Determinants of the Efficiency of Regional Innovation Systems

Michael Fritsch Viktor Slavtchev

in: Regional Studies, Nr. 7, 2011

Abstract

Determinanten der technischen Effizienz von regionalen Innovationssystemen, Regional Studies. Wir analysieren Unterschiede in der Effizienz regionaler Innovationssysteme (RIS). Zunächst werden alternative Maße für die Effizienz von RIS diskutiert, die auf dem Konzept der Wissensproduktionsfunktion aufbauen. Die empirischen Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass sowohl Spillover aus dem privaten Sektor als auch von Hochschulen und anderen öffentlichen Forschungseinrichtungen die Effizienz privater F&E-Aktivitäten positiv beeinflussen. Insbesondere die Intensität der Interaktion zwischen öffentlichen Einrichtungen und dem Privatsektor führt zu hoher Effizienz. Regionen, die durch Großbetriebe dominiert sind, weisen tendenziell eine geringere Effizienz der Innovationsaktivitäten auf als Regionen mit einer geringeren durchschnittlichen Betriebsgröße.

Publikation lesen

Arbeitspapiere

cover_DP_2020-14.jpg

The East-West German Gap in Revenue Productivity: Just a Tale of Output Prices?

Matthias Mertens Steffen Müller

in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 14, 2020

Abstract

East German manufacturers’ revenue productivity (value-added per worker) is some 8 (25) percent below West German levels, even three decades after German unification. Using firm-product-level data containing information on product quantities and prices, we analyse the role of product specialisation and reject the prominent ‚extended work bench hypothesis‘, stating a specialisation of Eastern firms in the intermediate input production as explanation for these sustained productivity differences. We decompose the East’s revenue productivity disadvantage into Eastern firms selling at lower prices and producing more physical output for given amounts of inputs within ten-digit product industries. This suggests that Eastern firms specialise vertically in simpler product varieties generating less consumer value but being manufactured with less or cheaper inputs. Vertical specialisation, however, does not explain the productivity gap as Eastern firms are physically less productive for given product prices, implying a genuine physical productivity disadvantage of Eastern compared to Western firms.

Publikation lesen

cover_DP_2020-13.jpg

Labour Market Power and Between-Firm Wage (In)Equality

Matthias Mertens

in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 13, 2020

Abstract

This study investigates how labour market power shapes between-firm wage differences using German manufacturing sector data from 1995 to 2016. Over time, firm- and employee-side labour market power, defined as the difference between wages and marginal revenue products of labour (MRPL), increasingly moderated rising between-firm wage inequality. This is because small, low-wage, low-MRPL firms possess no labour market power and pay wages equal to or even above their MRPL, whereas large, high-wage, high-MRPL firms possess high labour market power and pay wages below their MRPL. These wage-MRPL differences grow over time and compress the firm wage distribution compared to the counterfactual competitive labour market scenario. Particularly for the largest, highest-paying, and highest-MRPL firms, wage-MRPL differences strongly increase over time. This allows these firms to generate increasingly large labour market rents while being active on competitive product markets, providing novel insights on why such “superstar firms” are profitable and successful.

Publikation lesen

cover_DP_2020-01.jpg

Intangible Capital and Productivity. Firm-level Evidence from German Manufacturing

Wolfhard Kaus Viktor Slavtchev Markus Zimmermann

in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 1, 2020

Abstract

We study the importance of intangible capital (R&D, software, patents) for the measurement of productivity using firm-level panel data from German manufacturing. We first document a number of facts on the evolution of intangible investment over time, and its distribution across firms. Aggregate intangible investment increased over time. However, the distribution of intangible investment, even more so than that of physical investment, is heavily right-skewed, with many firms investing nothing or little, and a few firms having very large intensities. Intangible investment is also lumpy. Firms that invest more intensively in intangibles (per capita or as sales share) also tend to be more productive. In a second step, we estimate production functions with and without intangible capital using recent control function approaches to account for the simultaneity of input choice and unobserved productivity shocks. We find a positive output elasticity for research and development (R&D) and, to a lesser extent, software and patent investment. Moreover, the production function estimates show substantial heterogeneity in the output elasticities across industries and firms. While intangible capital has small effects for firms with low intangible intensity, there are strong positive effects for high-intensity firms. Finally, including intangibles in a gross output production function reduces productivity dispersion (measured by the 90-10 decile range) on average by 3%, in some industries as much as nearly 9%.

Publikation lesen

cover_DP_2019-20.jpg

Import Competition and Firm Productivity: Evidence from German Manufacturing

Richard Bräuer Matthias Mertens Viktor Slavtchev

in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 20, 2019

Abstract

This study analyses empirically the effects of import competition on firm productivity (TFPQ) using administrative firm-level panel data from German manufacturing. We find that only import competition from high-income countries is associated with positive incentives for firms to invest in productivity improvement, whereas import competition from middle- and low-income countries is not. To rationalise these findings, we further look at the characteristics of imports from the two types of countries and the effects on R&D, employment and sales. We provide evidence that imports from high-income countries are relatively capital-intensive and technologically more sophisticated goods, at which German firms tend to be relatively good. Costly investment in productivity appears feasible reaction to such type of competition and we find no evidence for downscaling. Imports from middle- and low-wage countries are relatively labour-intensive and technologically less sophisticated goods, at which German firms tend to generally be at disadvantage. In this case, there are no incentives to invest in innovation and productivity and firms tend to decline in sales and employment.

Publikation lesen

cover_DP_2017-17.jpg

TV and Entrepreneurship

Viktor Slavtchev Michael Wyrwich

in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 17, 2017

Abstract

We empirically analyse whether television (TV) can influence entrepreneurial identity and incidence. To identify causal effects, we utilise a quasi-natural experiment setting. During the division of Germany after WWII into West Germany with a free-market economy and the socialistic East Germany with centrally-planned economy, some East German regions had access to West German public TV that – differently from the East German TV – transmitted images, values, attitudes and view of life compatible with the free-market economy principles and supportive of entrepreneurship. We show that during the 40 years of socialistic regime in East Germany entrepreneurship was highly regulated and virtually impossible and that the prevalent formal and informal institutions broke the traditional ties linking entrepreneurship to the characteristics of individuals so that there were hardly any differences in the levels and development of entrepreneurship between East German regions with and without West German TV signal. Using both, regional and individual level data, we show then that, for the period after the Unification in 1990 which made starting an own business in East Germany, possible again, entrepreneurship incidence is higher among the residents of East German regions that had access to West German public TV, indicating that TV can, while transmitting specific images, values, attitudes and view of life, directly impact on the entrepreneurial mindset of individuals. Moreover, we find that young individuals born after 1980 in East German households that had access to West German TV are also more entrepreneurial. These findings point to second-order effects due to inter-personal and inter-generational transmission, a mechanism that can cause persistent differences in the entrepreneurship incidence across (geographically defined) population groups.

Publikation lesen
Mitglied der Leibniz-Gemeinschaft LogoTotal-Equality-LogoWeltoffen Logo