Monetäre Aggregate, Vermögenspreise und realwirtschaftliche Effekte
Diese Forschungsgruppe erforscht – auch vor dem Hintergrund der jüngsten Krisen – den Zusammenhang zwischen monetären Aggregaten, Vermögenspreisen und realwirtschaftlichen Schwankungen. Ein besonderer Schwerpunkt liegt auf der Entwicklung allgemeiner Gleichgewichtsmodelle, die diese Zusammenhänge explizit abbilden.
ForschungsclusterGesamtwirtschaftliche Dynamik und Stabilität
01.2017 ‐ 12.2017
Effekte von Wechselkursänderungen auf Produktion und Inflation
Reconciling Narrative Monetary Policy Disturbances with Structural VAR Model Shocks?
in: Economics Letters, Nr. 2, 2013
Structural VAR studies disagree with narrative accounts about the history of monetary policy disturbances. We investigate whether employing the narrative monetary shocks as a proxy variable in a VAR model aligns both shock series. We find that it does not.
Explosive Preisentwicklung und spekulative Blasen auf Rohstoffmärkten
in: ORDO, Nr. 64, 2013
In dieser Studie wird untersucht, ob die Preisentwicklung auf Rohstoffmärkten statistische Anhaltspunkte für spekulative Preisblasen liefert. Diese Frage ist von zentraler Bedeutung in der wirtschaftspolitischen Debatte um die Regulierung des Handels von Rohstoffen. Es kann statistisch gezeigt werden, dass sich Rohstoffpreise gelegentlich explosiv verhalten. Die stärkste Evidenz für explosives Verhalten gibt es bei den Industrierohstoffen. Auch bei Nahrungsmittelpreisen können Phasen explosiven Verhaltens statistisch nachgewiesen werden. Eine wichtige Schlussfolgerung ist, dass die Ursachen explosiven Verhaltens auf Rohstoffmärkten und die Effekte von Preisblasen auf die Entscheidungen von Konsumenten und Investoren sowie Verteilungseffekte systematisch untersucht werden müssen.
The New EU Countries and Euro Adoption
in: Intereconomics, Nr. 3, 2013
In the new member states of the EU which have not yet adopted the euro, previous adoption strategies have come under scrutiny. The spillovers and contagion from the global financial crisis revealed a new threat to the countries’ real convergence goal, namely considerable vulnerability to the transmission of financial instability to the real economy. This paper demonstrates the existence of extreme risks for real convergence and argues in favour of a new adoption strategy which does not announce a target date for the currency changeover and which allows for more flexible and countercyclical monetary, fiscal and wage policies.
Money and Inflation: Consequences of the Recent Monetary Policy
in: Journal of Policy Modeling, Nr. 4, 2013
We use a multivariate state space framework to analyze the short run impact of money on prices in the United States. The key contribution of this approach is that it allows to identify the impact of money growth on inflation without having to model money demand explicitly. Using our results, that provide evidence for a substantial impact of money on prices in the US, we analyze the consequences of the Fed's response to the financial crisis. Our results indicate a raise of US inflation above 5% for more than a decade. Alternative exit strategies that we simulate cannot fully compensate for the monetary pressure without risking serious repercussions on the real economy. Further simulations of a double dip in the United States indicate that a repetition of the unusually expansive monetary policy – in addition to increased inflation – might cause growth losses exceeding the contemporary easing of the crisis.
Has the Euro Increased International Price Elasticities?
in: Empirica, Nr. 1, 2013
The introduction of the Euro has been accompanied by the hope that international competition between EMU member states would increase due to higher price transparency. This paper contributes to the literature by analyzing price elasticities in international trade flows between Germany and France and between Germany and the United Kingdom before and after the introduction of the Euro. Using disaggregated Eurostat trade statistics, we adopt a heterogeneous dynamic panel framework for the estimation of price elasticities. We suggest a Kalman-filter approach to control for unobservable quality changes which otherwise would bias estimates of price elasticities. We divide the complete sample, which ranges from 1995 to 2008, into two sub-samples and show that price elasticities in trade between EMU members did not change substantially after the introduction of the Euro. Hence, we do not find evidence for an increase in international price competition resulting from EMU.
Same, but Different: Testing Monetary Policy Shock Measures
in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 9, 2017
In this study, we test whether three popular measures for monetary policy, that is, Romer and Romer (2004), Barakchian and Crowe (2013), and Gertler and Karadi (2015), constitute suitable proxy variables for monetary policy shocks. To this end, we employ different test statistics used in the literature to detect weak proxy variables. We find that the measure derived by Gertler and Karadi (2015) is the most suitable in this regard.
Do We Need New Modelling Approaches in Macroeconomics?
in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 8, 2014
The economic and financial crisis that emerged in 2008 also initiated an intense discussion on macroeconomic research and the role of economists in society. The debate focuses on three main issues. Firstly, it is argued that economists failed to predict the crisis and to design early warning systems. Secondly, it is claimed that economists use models of the macroeconomy which fail to integrate financial markets and which are inadequate to model large economic crises. Thirdly, the issue has been raised that economists invoke unrealistic assumptions concerning human behaviour by assuming that all agents are self-centred, rationally optimizing individuals. In this paper, we focus on the first two issues. Overall, our thrust is that the above statements are a caricature of modern economic theory and empirics. A rich field of research developed already before the crisis and picked up shortcomings of previous models.
Efficiency in the UK Commercial Property Market: A Long-run Perspective
in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 15, 2012
Informationally efficient prices are a necessary requirement for optimal resource allocation in the real estate market. Prices are informationally efficient if they reflect buildings’ benefit to marginal buyers, thereby taking account of all available information on future market development. Prices that do not reflect available information may lead to over- or undersupply if developers react to these inefficient prices. In this study, we examine the efficiency of the UK commercial property market and the interaction between prices, construction costs, and new supply. We collated a unique data set covering the years 1920 onwards, which we employ in our study. First, we assess if real estate prices were in accordance with present values, thereby testing for informational efficiency. By comparing prices and estimated present values, we can measure informational inefficiency. Second, we assess if developers reacted correctly to price signals. Development (or the lack thereof) should be triggered by deviations between present values and cost; if prices do not reflect present values, then they should have no impact on development decisions.
Monetary Policy in a World Where Money (Also) Matters
in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 6, 2012
While the long-run relation between money and inflation as predicted by the quantity theory is well established, empirical studies of the short-run adjustment process have been inconclusive at best. The literature regarding the validity of the quantity theory within a given economy is mixed. Previous research has found support for quantity theory within a given economy by combining the P-Star, the structural VAR and the monetary aggregation literature. However, these models lack precise modelling of the short-run dynamics by ignoring interest rates as the main policy instrument. Contrarily, most New Keynesian approaches, while excellently modeling the short-run dynamics transmitted through interest rates, ignore the role of money and thus the potential mid-and long-run effects of monetary policy. We propose a parsimonious and fairly unrestrictive econometric model that allows a detailed look into the dynamics of a monetary policy shock by accounting for changes in economic equilibria, such as potential output and money demand, in a framework that allows for both monetarist and New Keynesian transmission mechanisms, while also considering the Barnett critique. While we confirm most New Keynesian findings concerning the short-run dynamics, we also find strong evidence for a substantial role of the quantity of money for price movements.