Ökonometrische Methoden für wirtschaftliche Prognosen und Simulationen

Der Forschungsschwerpunkt der Forschungsgruppe liegt in der Entwicklung ökonometrischer Methoden für Kurzfristprognosen (Reduzierte-Form-Modelle), für Regionalisierung und für Langfristprojektionen sowie für strukturelle Prognose- und Simulationsmodelle (DSGE-Modelle). Ferner erstellt sie ökonometrische Hintergrundanalysen für die Prognosetätigkeit der Forschungsgruppe Makroökonomische Analysen und Prognosen. Im Rahmen von Drittmittelprojekten wurden verschiedene makroökonomische Modelle, bspw. für die Volkswagen Financial Services AG oder im Rahmen von GIZ-Projekten für die Wirtschaftsministerien in Kirgistan und Tadschikistan sowie das Institut für makroökonomische Prognosen und Forschung (IFMR) in Usbekistan entwickelt.

IWH-Datenprojekt: IWH Real-time Database

Forschungscluster
Gesamtwirtschaftliche Dynamik und Stabilität

Ihr Kontakt

Dr. Katja Heinisch
Dr. Katja Heinisch
Mitglied - Abteilung Makroökonomik
Nachricht senden +49 345 7753-836

PROJEKTE

10.2019 ‐ 06.2022

An Klimawandel angepasste Wirtschaftsentwicklung

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH

Der Klimawandel wirkt sich stark auf das Wirtschaftswachstum und die Entwicklung eines Landes aus. Das erhöht den Bedarf an verlässlichen und realisierbaren Ansätzen, mit denen die Auswirkungen von Klimarisiken und potenzielle Anpassungsszenarien bewertet werden können. Die politischen Entscheidungsträger*innen in den Planungs- und Wirtschaftsministerien benötigen fundierte Prognosen, um entsprechende wirtschaftspolitische Instrumente zu konzipieren, zu finanzieren und aktiv gegenzusteuern. In den Pilotländern Kasachstan, Vietnam und Georgien werden Klimarisiken bei der makroökonomischen Modellierung berücksichtigt. Die Ergebnisse werden so in den Politikprozess integriert, dass angepasste Wirtschaftsplanungen entstehen können. Das IWH-Team ist verantwortlich für die makroökonomische Modellierung in Vietnam.

GIZ-Projektseite ansehen

Dr. Katja Heinisch

05.2020 ‐ 04.2023

ENTRANCES: Energy Transitions from Coal and Carbon: Effects on Societies

Europäische Kommission

Ziel von ENTRANCES ist es, die Folgen des Kohleausstiegs in Europa zu untersuchen. Wie verändert der Kohleausstieg die Gesellschaft – und wie kann Politik darauf reagieren?

Projektseite ansehen

This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 883947.

Professor Dr. Oliver Holtemöller
Dr. Katja Heinisch

01.2018 ‐ 12.2023

EuropeAid (EU-Rahmenvertrag)

Europäische Kommission

Professor Dr. Oliver Holtemöller

07.2016 ‐ 12.2018

Klimaschutz und Kohleausstieg: Politische Strategien und Maßnahmen bis 2030 und darüber hinaus

Umweltbundesamt (UBA)

Dr. Katja Heinisch

01.2017 ‐ 12.2017

Unterstützung einer nachhaltigen Wirtschaftsentwicklung in ausgewählten Regionen Usbekistans

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH

Dr. Andrej Drygalla

01.2017 ‐ 12.2017

Short-term Macroeconomic Forecasting Model in Ministry of Economic Development and Trade of Ukraine

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH

Dr. Andrej Drygalla

01.2016 ‐ 12.2017

Entwicklung eines analytischen Tools basierend auf einer Input-Output-Tabelle

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH

Das Ziel des Projektes war die Entwicklung eines Exceltools zur Wirkungsanalyse von Politikmaßnahmen in Tadschikistan basierend auf dem statischen Input-Output-Ansatz.

Dr. Katja Heinisch

11.2015 ‐ 12.2016

Beschäftigung und Entwicklung in der Republik Usbekistan

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH

Förderung einer nachhaltigen wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung in ausgewählten Regionen Usbekistans

Dr. Katja Heinisch

05.2016 ‐ 05.2016

Rahmenbedingungen und Finanzierungsmöglichkeiten für die Entwicklung des Privatsektors in Tadschikistan

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH

Dr. Katja Heinisch

02.2016 ‐ 04.2016

Makroökonomische Reformen und umwelt- und sozialverträgliches Wachstum in Vietnam

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH

Dr. Katja Heinisch

Referierte Publikationen

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Testing for Structural Breaks at Unknown Time: A Steeplechase

Makram El-Shagi Sebastian Giesen

in: Computational Economics, Nr. 1, 2013

Abstract

This paper analyzes the role of common data problems when identifying structural breaks in small samples. Most notably, we survey small sample properties of the most commonly applied endogenous break tests developed by Brown et al. (J R Stat Soc B 37:149–163, 1975) and Zeileis (Stat Pap 45(1):123–131, 2004), Nyblom (J Am Stat Assoc 84(405):223–230, 1989) and Hansen (J Policy Model 14(4):517–533, 1992), and Andrews et al. (J Econ 70(1):9–38, 1996). Power and size properties are derived using Monte Carlo simulations. We find that the Nyblom test is on par with the commonly used F type tests in a small sample in terms of power. While the Nyblom test’s power decreases if the structural break occurs close to the margin of the sample, it proves far more robust to nonnormal distributions of the error term that are found to matter strongly in small samples although being irrelevant asymptotically for all tests that are analyzed in this paper.

Publikation lesen

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Fiscal Spending Multiplier Calculations Based on Input-Output Tables? An Application to EU Member States

Toralf Pusch

in: Intervention. European Journal of Economics and Economic Policies, Nr. 1, 2012

Abstract

Fiscal spending multiplier calculations have attracted considerable attention in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. Much of the current literature is based on VAR estimation methods and DSGE models. In line with the Keynesian literature we argue that many of these models probably underestimate the fiscal spending multiplier in recessions. The income-expenditure model of the fiscal spending multiplier can be seen as a good approximation under these circumstances. In its conventional form this model suffers from an underestimation of the multiplier due to an overestimation of the import intake of domestic absorption. In this article we apply input-output calculus to solve this problem. Multipliers thus derived are comparably high, ranging between 1.4 and 1.8 for many member states of the European Union. GDP drops due to budget consolidation might therefore be substantial in times of crisis.

Publikation lesen

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The Halle Economic Projection Model

Sebastian Giesen Oliver Holtemöller Juliane Scharff Rolf Scheufele

in: Economic Modelling, Nr. 4, 2012

Abstract

In this paper we develop an open economy model explaining the joint determination of output, inflation, interest rates, unemployment and the exchange rate in a multi-country framework. Our model -- the Halle Economic Projection Model (HEPM) -- is closely related to studies published by Carabenciov et al. Our main contribution is that we model the Euro area countries separately. In doing so, we consider Germany, France, and Italy which represent together about 70 percent of Euro area GDP. The model combines core equations of the New-Keynesian standard DSGE model with empirically useful ad-hoc equations. We estimate this model using Bayesian techniques and evaluate the forecasting properties. Additionally, we provide an impulse response analysis and a historical shock decomposition.

Publikation lesen

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The Performance of Short-term Forecasts of the German Economy before and during the 2008/2009 Recession

Katja Drechsel Rolf Scheufele

in: International Journal of Forecasting, Nr. 2, 2012

Abstract

The paper analyzes the forecasting performance of leading indicators for industrial production in Germany. We focus on single and pooled leading indicator models both before and during the financial crisis. Pairwise and joint significant tests are used to evaluate single indicator models as well as forecast combination methods. In addition, we investigate the stability of forecasting models during the most recent financial crisis.

Publikation lesen

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The Financial Crisis from a Forecaster's Perspective

Katja Drechsel Rolf Scheufele

in: Kredit und Kapital, Nr. 1, 2012

Abstract

This paper analyses the recession in 2008/2009 in Germany. This recession is very different from previous recessions in particular regarding their causes and magnitude. We show to what extent forecasters and forecasts based on leading indicators fail to detect the timing and the magnitude of the recession. This study shows that large forecast errors for both expert forecasts and forecasts based on leading indicators resulted during this recession which implies that the recession was very difficult to forecast. However, some leading indicators (survey data, risk spreads, stock prices) have indicated an economic downturn and hence, beat univariate time series models. Although the combination of individual forecasts provides an improvement compared to the benchmark model, the combined forecasts are worse than several individual models. A comparison of expert forecasts withthe best forecasts based on leading indicators shows only minor deviations. Overall, the range for an improvement of expert forecasts in the crisis compared to indicator forecasts is small.

Publikation lesen

Arbeitspapiere

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Conditional Macroeconomic Forecasts: Disagreement, Revisions and Forecast Errors

Alexander Glas Katja Heinisch

in: IWH Discussion Papers, Nr. 7, 2021

Abstract

Using data from the European Central Bank‘s Survey of Professional Forecasters, we analyse the role of ex-ante conditioning variables for macroeconomic forecasts. In particular, we test to which extent the heterogeneity, updating and ex-post performance of predictions for inflation, real GDP growth and the unemployment rate are related to assumptions about future oil prices, exchange rates, interest rates and wage growth. Our findings indicate that inflation forecasts are closely associated with oil price expectations, whereas expected interest rates are used primarily to predict output growth and unemployment. Expectations about exchange rates and wage growth also matter for macroeconomic forecasts, albeit less so than oil prices and interest rates. We show that survey participants can considerably improve forecast accuracy for macroeconomic outcomes by reducing prediction errors for external conditions. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the expectation formation process of experts.

Publikation lesen

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Disentangling Covid-19, Economic Mobility, and Containment Policy Shocks

Annika Camehl Malte Rieth

in: IWH Discussion Papers, Nr. 2, 2021

Abstract

We study the dynamic impact of Covid-19, economic mobility, and containment policy shocks. We use Bayesian panel structural vector autoregressions with daily data for 44 countries, identified through sign and zero restrictions. Incidence and mobility shocks raise cases and deaths significantly for two months. Restrictive policy shocks lower mobility immediately, cases after one week, and deaths after three weeks. Non-pharmaceutical interventions explain half of the variation in mobility, cases, and deaths worldwide. These flattened the pandemic curve, while deepening the global mobility recession. The policy tradeoff is 1 p.p. less mobility per day for 9% fewer deaths after two months.

Publikation lesen

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Epidemics in the Neoclassical and New Keynesian Models

Martin S. Eichenbaum Sergio Rebelo Mathias Trabandt

in: NBER Working Paper, Nr. 27430, 2020

Abstract

We analyze the effects of an epidemic in three standard macroeconomic models. We find that the neoclassical model does not rationalize the positive comovement of consumption and investment observed in recessions associated with an epidemic. Introducing monopolistic competition into the neoclassical model remedies this shortcoming even when prices are completely flexible. Finally, sticky prices lead to a larger recession but do not fundamentally alter the predictions of the monopolistic competition model.

Publikation lesen

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Integrated Assessment of Epidemic and Economic Dynamics

Oliver Holtemöller

in: IWH Discussion Papers, Nr. 4, 2020

Abstract

In this paper, a simple integrated model for the joint assessment of epidemic and economic dynamics is developed. The model can be used to discuss mitigation policies like shutdown and testing. Since epidemics cause output losses due to a reduced labor force, temporarily reducing economic activity in order to prevent future losses can be welfare enhancing. Mitigation policies help to keep the number of people requiring intensive medical care below the capacity of the health system. The optimal policy is a mixture of temporary partial shutdown and intensive testing and isolation of infectious persons for an extended period of time.

Publikation lesen

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How Forecast Accuracy Depends on Conditioning Assumptions

Carola Engelke Katja Heinisch Christoph Schult

in: IWH Discussion Papers, Nr. 18, 2019

Abstract

This paper examines the extent to which errors in economic forecasts are driven by initial assumptions that prove to be incorrect ex post. Therefore, we construct a new data set comprising an unbalanced panel of annual forecasts from different institutions forecasting German GDP and the underlying assumptions. We explicitly control for different forecast horizons to proxy the information available at the release date. Over 75% of squared errors of the GDP forecast comove with the squared errors in their underlying assumptions. The root mean squared forecast error for GDP in our regression sample of 1.52% could be reduced to 1.13% by setting all assumption errors to zero. This implies that the accuracy of the assumptions is of great importance and that forecasters should reveal the framework of their assumptions in order to obtain useful policy recommendations based on economic forecasts.

Publikation lesen
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