Recht und Finanzen
Die Forschungsgruppe gehört zum IWH-Forschungscluster Institutionen und soziale Normen. Diese Forschungsgruppe untersucht die Bedeutung der Corporate Governance für den Unternehmenswert und die Unternehmenspolitik. Von besonderem Interesse sind dabei die Beziehungen zwischen Unternehmen und Gläubigern sowie rechtliche Regelungen. Untersucht wird insbesondere, wie finanzielle und rechtliche Innovationen die Beziehung zwischen Firmen und ihren Gläubigern beeinflussen, sowie die Rolle des Rechtssystems für die Unternehmensentwicklung.
ForschungsclusterInstitutionen und soziale Normen
Shareholder Bargaining Power and the Emergence of Empty Creditors
in: Journal of Financial Economics, im Erscheinen
Credit default swaps (CDSs) can create empty creditors who may push borrowers into inefficient bankruptcy but also reduce shareholders' incentives to default strategically. We show theoretically and empirically that the presence and the effects of empty creditors on firm outcomes depend on the distribution of bargaining power among claimholders. Firms are more likely to have empty creditors if these would face powerful shareholders in debt renegotiation. The empirical evidence confirms that more CDS insurance is written on firms with strong shareholders and that CDSs increase the bankruptcy risk of these same firms. The ensuing effect on firm value is negative.
On the Effect of Business and Economic University Education on Political Ideology: An Empirical Note
in: Journal of Business Ethics, im Erscheinen
We empirically test the hypothesis that a major in economics, management, business administration or accounting (for simplicity referred to as Business/Economics) leads to more-conservative (right-wing) political views. We use a panel dataset of individuals (repeated observations for the same individuals over time) living in the Netherlands, drawing data from the Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Sciences from 2008 through 2013. Our results show that when using a simple fixed effects model, which fully controls for individuals’ time-invariant traits, any statistically and quantitatively significant effect of a major in Business/Economics on the Political Ideology of these individuals disappears. We posit that, at least in our sample, there is no evidence for a causal effect of a major in Business/Economics on individuals’ Political Ideology.
Employee Treatment and Contracting with Bank Lenders: An Instrumental Approach for Stakeholder Management
in: Journal of Business Ethics, im Erscheinen
Adopting an instrumental approach for stakeholder management, we focus on two primary stakeholder groups (employees and creditors) to investigate the relationship between employee treatment and loan contracts with banks. We find strong evidence that fair employee treatment reduces loan price and limits the use of financial covenants. In addition, we document that relationship bank lenders price both the levels and changes in the quality of employee treatment, whereas first-time bank lenders only care about the levels of fair employee treatment. Taking a contingency perspective, we find that industry competition and firm asset intangibility moderate the relationship between good human resource management and bank loan costs. The cost reduction effect of fair employee treatment is stronger for firms operating in a more competitive industry and having higher levels of intangible assets.
Trust in Banks
in: Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, im Erscheinen
Trust in banks is considered essential for an effective financial system, yet little is known about what determines trust in banks. Only a handful of single-country studies discuss the topic, so this paper aims to fill the gap by providing a cross-country analysis on the level and determinants of trust in banks. Using World Values Survey data covering 52 countries during the period 2010–2014, we observe large cross-country differences in trust in banks and confirm the influence of several sociodemographic indicators. Our main findings include: women tend to trust banks more than men; trust in banks tends to increase with income, but decrease with age and education; and access to television enhances trust, while internet access erodes trust. Additionally, religious, political, and economic values affect trust in banks. Notably, religious individuals tend to put greater trust in banks, but differences are observed across denominations. The holding of pro-market economic views is also associated with greater trust in banks.
Lock-in Effects in Relationship Lending: Evidence from DIP Loans
in: Journal of Money Credit & Banking, im Erscheinen
Do prior lending relationships result in pass-through savings (lower interest rates) for borrowers, or do they lock in higher costs for borrowers? Theoretical models suggest that when borrowers experience greater information asymmetry, higher switching costs, and limited access to capital markets, they become locked into higher costs from their existing lenders. Firms in Chapter 11 seeking debtor-inpossession (DIP) financing often fit this profile. We investigate the presence of lock-in effects using a sample of DIP loans. We first account for selectivity bias by using the inverse mills ratio form a first stage. Then, in a second stage, we jointly estimate the relationship between loan price and non-price terms accounting for selectivity bias. We find that the existence and intensity of prior lending relationships are associated with higher interest costs, longer maturities, and smaller DIP loans. Taken together, our study provides direct evidence that prior lending relationships do create a lock-in effect under certain circumstances, such as DIP financing.
Effectiveness and (In)Efficiencies of Compensation Regulation: Evidence from the EU Banker Bonus Cap
in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 7, 2018
We study if the regulation of bank executive compensation has unintended consequences. Based on novel data on CEO and non-CEO executives in EU banking, we show that capping the variable-to-fixed compensation ratio did not induce executives to abandon the industry. Banks indemnified executives sufficiently for the shock to retain them by raising fixed and lowering variable compensation while complying with the cap. At the same time, banks‘ risk-adjusted performance deteriorated due to increased idiosyncratic risk. Collateral damage for the financial system as a whole appears modest though, as average co-movement of banks with the market declined under the cap.
Pricing Sin Stocks: Ethical Preference vs. Risk Aversion
in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 20, 2017
We develop a model that reproduces the return and volatility spread between sin and non-sin stocks, where investors trade off dividends with the ethical assessment of companies. We relax the assumption of boycott behaviour and investigate the role played by the dividend share of sin stocks on their return and volatility spread relative to non-sin stocks. We empirically show that the dividend share predicts a positive return and volatility spread. This pattern is reproduced by our model when dividends and ethicalness are complementary goods and investors are sufficiently risk averse.
Internal Governance and Creditor Governance: Evidence from Credit Default Swaps
in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 6, 2017
I study the relation between internal governance and creditor governance. A deterioration in creditor governance may increase the agency costs of debt and managerial opportunism at the expense of shareholders. I exploit the introduction of credit default swaps (CDS) as a negative shock to creditor governance. I provide evidence consistent with shareholders pushing for a substitution effect between internal governance and creditor governance. Following CDS introduction, CDS firms reduce managerial risk-taking incentives relative to other firms. At the same time, after the start of CDS trading, CDS firms increase managerial wealth-performance sensitivity, board independence, and CEO turnover performance-sensitivity relative to other firms.
Executive Compensation, Macroeconomic Conditions, and Cash Flow Cyclicality
in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 6, 2016
I model the joint effects of debt, macroeconomic conditions, and cash flow cyclicality on risk-shifting behavior and managerial pay-for-performance sensitivity. I show that risk-shifting incentives rise during recessions and that the shareholders can eliminate such adverse incentives by reducing the equity-based compensation in managerial contracts. I also show that this reduction should be larger in highly procyclical firms. Using a sample of U.S. public firms, I provide evidence supportive of the model’s predictions. First, I find that equity-based incentives are reduced during recessions. Second, I show that the magnitude of this effect is increasing in a firm’s cash flow cyclicality.
Do Courts Matter for Firm Value? Evidence from the U.S. Court System
in: IWH-Diskussionspapiere, Nr. 1, 2016
We estimate the impact of U.S. state court characteristics on firm value by exploiting a U.S. Supreme Court ruling that exogenously changed firms‘ exposure to different courts. We find that increased exposure to more business-friendly courts is associated with positive announcement returns. We find no such association for objective court quality. We confirm that this U.S. Supreme Court ruling impacted firm value through the legal environment channel. We show that this ruling reduced the ability of affected firms to remove cases from certain state courts, and we show that announcement returns are stronger for firms that have high litigation exposure.