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International Trade Barriers and Regional Employment: The Case of a No-Deal Brexit
Journal of Economic Structures,
We use the World Input–Output Database (WIOD) combined with regional sectoral employment data to estimate the potential regional employment effects of international trade barriers. We study the case of a no-deal Brexit in which imports to the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU) would be subject to tariffs and non-tariff trade costs. First, we derive the decline in UK final goods imports from the EU from industry-specific international trade elasticities, tariffs and non-tariff trade costs. Using input–output analysis, we estimate the potential output and employment effects for 56 industries and 43 countries on the national level. The absolute effects would be largest in big EU countries which have close trade relationships with the UK, such as Germany and France. However, there would also be large countries outside the EU which would be heavily affected via global value chains, such as China, for example. The relative effects (in percent of total employment) would be largest in Ireland followed by Belgium. In a second step, we split up the national effects on the NUTS-2 level for EU member states and additionally on the county (NUTS-3) level for Germany. The share of affected workers varies between 0.03% and 3.4% among European NUTS-2 regions and between 0.15% and 0.4% among German counties. A general result is that indirect effects via global value chains, i.e., trade in intermediate inputs, are more important than direct effects via final demand.
Structural Stability of the Research & Development Sector in European Economies Despite the Economic Crisis
Journal of Evolutionary Economics,
When an external shock such as the economic crisis in 2008/2009 occurs, the interconnectedness of sectors can be affected. This paper investigates whether the R&D sector experienced changes in its sectoral integration through the recession. Based on an input-output analysis, it can be shown that the linkages of the R&D sector with other sectors remain stable. In some countries, the inter-sectoral integration becomes even stronger. Policy makers can be encouraged to use public R&D spending as a means of fiscal policy against an economic crisis.
The Skills Balance in Germany’s Import Intensity of Exports: An Input-Output Analysis
In the decade prior to the economic and financial crisis, Germany’s net exports increased in absolute terms as well as relative to the growing level of import intensity of domestically produced export goods and services. This article analyses the direct and indirect employment effects induced both by exports as well as by of the import intensity of the production process of export goods and services on the skills used. It shows that Germany’s export surpluses led to positive net employment effects. Although the volume of imports of intermediate goods increased and was augmented by the rise in exports, it could not undermine the overall positive employment effect.
Skill Content of Intra-european Trade Flows
European Journal of Comparative Economics,
In recent decades, the international division of labor has expanded rapidly in the wake of European integration. In this context, especially Western European high-wage countries should have specialized on (human-)capital intensively manufactured goods and should have increasingly sourced labor-intensively manufactured goods, especially parts and components, from Eastern European low wage countries. Since this should be beneficial for the high-skilled and harmful to the lower-qualified workforce in high-wage countries, the opening up of Eastern Europe is often considered as a vital reason for increasing unemployment of the lower-qualified in Western Europe. This paper addresses this issue by analyzing the skill content of Western European countries’ bilateral trade using input-output techniques in order to evaluate possible effects of international trade on labor demand. Thereby, differences in factor inputs and production technologies have been considered, allowing for vertical product differentiation. In this case, skill content of bilateral exports and imports partially differs substantially, especially in bilateral trade between Western and Eastern European countries. According to the results, East-West trade should be harmful particularly to the medium-skilled in Western European countries.
Konjunkturelle Flaute zum Jahresende 2012 – aber auch Anzeichen für eine mäßige Brise im neuen Jahr
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
In diesem Artikel wird die Konjunkturprognose des IWH vom 13. Dezember 2012 zusammenfassend dargestellt.
Das IWH ist im Dezember für das Jahr 2012 von einer Zunahme des Bruttoinlandsproduktes in Deutschland von 0,8% ausgegangen. Aktuellere Daten des Statistischen Bundesamtes weisen eine Zunahme um 0,7% aus. Das vierte Quartal 2012 dürfte somit geringfügig schwächer ausgefallen sein als in der Prognose vom Dezember unterstellt. Die Prognose für die Jahre 2013 und 2014 bleibt davon jedoch unberührt. Nach konjunktureller Flaute zum Jahresende 2012 dürfte die Weltwirtschaft im Jahr 2013 wieder frischen Wind in den Segeln verspüren. Ein kräftiger Aufschwung bleibt jedoch aus. Die Konsolidierungsnotwendigkeiten in vielen fortgeschrittenen Volkswirtschaften wirken weiter belastend. Auch die deutsche Wirtschaft wird im Schlussquartal des Jahres 2012 schrumpfen, dann aber wieder Fahrt aufnehmen. Das Bruttoinlandsprodukt legt im Jahr 2013 um 0,7% zu und im Jahr 2014 um 1,5%. Dabei wird die Arbeitslosenquote geringfügig auf 6,7% steigen. Die Verbraucherpreisinflation wird in den Jahren 2013 und 2014 in etwa bei 2% liegen. Der staatliche Finanzierungssaldo wird im Jahr 2013 wieder negativ.
Fiscal Spending Multiplier Calculations Based on Input-Output Tables? An Application to EU Member States
Intervention. European Journal of Economics and Economic Policies,
Fiscal spending multiplier calculations have attracted considerable attention in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. Much of the current literature is based on VAR estimation methods and DSGE models. In line with the Keynesian literature we argue that many of these models probably underestimate the fiscal spending multiplier in recessions. The income-expenditure model of the fiscal spending multiplier can be seen as a good approximation under these circumstances. In its conventional form this model suffers from an underestimation of the multiplier due to an overestimation of the import intake of domestic absorption. In this article we apply input-output calculus to solve this problem. Multipliers thus derived are comparably high, ranging between 1.4 and 1.8 for many member states of the European Union. GDP drops due to budget consolidation might therefore be substantial in times of crisis.
International Fragmentation of Production and the Labour Input into Germany’s Exports – An Input-Output-analysis
The import penetration of exports has become a topic of public debate, particularly in the context of Germany’s position as one of the world’s leading exporters. The growth in the volume of intermediate products purchased from abroad for subsequent processing into export goods in Germany seems to be undermining the importance of exports as a driver of domestic production and employment. The gains that arise from an increase in exports seem to have been offset by the losses caused by the crowding out of local production by imports. Empirical evidence on the impact of this international integration of the goods market on the German labour market is ambiguous. Short-term negative effects on employment are claimed to be offset by the long-term benefit that the jobs lost in the short run will eventually be replaced by higher-skilled jobs with better
perspectives. Against this background, the following hypothesis is tested empirically: Germany is poor in natural resources, but rich in skilled labour. In line with the Heckscher- Ohlin theory, Germany should therefore specialize in the production of export goods and services that are relatively intensive in these factors and should import those goods and services that are relatively intensive in unskilled labour. The empirical part of the paper deals with the extent of the German export penetration by imports. At first, it analyses by what ways imports are affecting the exports directly and indirectly and shows the consequences of import penetration of exports for the national output and employment. Secondly, consequences for employment are split in different skill types of labour. These issues are discussed with the standard open static inputoutput- model. The data base is a time series of official input-output tables. The employment effects for Germany divided by skill types of labour are investigated using skill matrices generated by the authors.