Coal Phase-out in Germany – Implications and Policies for Affected Regions ...
15.01.2019 • 1/2019
Schneller Braunkohleausstieg hat deutliche Folgen in betroffenen Regionen
Wenn Deutschland die Braunkohleverstromung vorzeitig beendet, wird die Gesamtwirtschaft kaum beeinträchtigt. Allerdings zeigen Berechnungen des Leibniz-Instituts für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH) spürbare Effekte auf die Arbeitsmärkte des Rheinlands, Mitteldeutschlands und der Lausitz. Eine Region ist besonders betroffen von Arbeitslosigkeit und Abwanderung.
Frauenerwerbstätigkeit – Eine Input-Output-Analyse
Neuere Anwendungsfelder der Input-Output-Analyse – Tagungsband – Beiträge zum Input-Output-Workshop 2014 in Osnabrück. gws Research Report 2014/2,
In Deutschland sind die unmittelbar mit dem Exportgeschäft verbundenen Produktionsbereiche männerdominiert. Der Exporteinbruch in der vergangenen Wirtschaftskrise wurde deshalb in der Öffentlichkeit mit der Erwartung verknüpft, dass er vor allem die Beschäftigung von Männern und weniger von Frauen treffen würde. Wir überprüfen diese These anhand des um eine Beschäftigungsmatrix nach dem Geschlecht der Erwerbstätigen und Arbeitszeitgruppen erweiterten mehrsektoralen offenen statischen Input-Output-Modells.
Can R&D Subsidies Counteract the Economic Crisis? – Macroeconomic Effects in Germany
During the economic crisis of 2008 and 2009, governments in Europe stabilized their economies by means of fiscal policy. After decades of absence, deficit spending was used to counteract the heavy decline in demand. In Germany, public spending went partially into R&D subsidies in favor of small and medium sized enterprises. Applying the standard open input–output model, the paper analyzes the macroeconomic effects of R&D subsidies on employment and production in the business cycle. Findings in the form of backward multipliers suggest that R&D subsidies have stimulated a substantial leverage effect. Almost two thirds of the costs of R&D projects are covered by the enterprises themselves. Overall, a subsidized R&D program results in a production, value added and employment effect that amounts to at least twice the initial financing. Overall, the R&D program counteracts the decline of GDP by 0.5% in the year 2009. In the year 2010 the effects are already procyclical since the German economy recovered quickly. Compared to the strongly discussed alternative uses of subsidies for private consumption, R&D spending is more effective.
The Skills Balance in Germany’s Import Intensity of Exports: An Input-Output Analysis
In the decade prior to the economic and financial crisis, Germany’s net exports increased in absolute terms as well as relative to the growing level of import intensity of domestically produced export goods and services. This article analyses the direct and indirect employment effects induced both by exports as well as by of the import intensity of the production process of export goods and services on the skills used. It shows that Germany’s export surpluses led to positive net employment effects. Although the volume of imports of intermediate goods increased and was augmented by the rise in exports, it could not undermine the overall positive employment effect.
The Determinants of Inward Foreign Direct Investment in Business Services Across European Regions
Finanza e Statistica 104/2012,
The paper accounts for the determinants of inward foreign direct investment in business services across the EU-27 regions. Together with the traditional variables considered in the literature (market size, market quality, agglomeration economies, labour cost, technology, human capital), we focus on the role of forward linkages with manufacturing sectors and other service sectors as
attractors of business services FDI at the regional level. This hypothesis is based on the evidence that the growth of business services is mostly due to increasing intermediate demand by other services industries and by manufacturing industries and on the importance of geographical proximity for forward linkages in services.
To our knowledge, there are no studies investigating the role of forward linkages for the location of FDI. This paper aims therefore to fill this gap and add to the FDI literature by providing a picture of the specificities of the determinants of FDI in business services at the regional level. The empirical analysis draws upon the database fDi Markets, from which we selected projects having as a destination NUTS 2 European regions in the sectors of Business services over the period 2003-2008. Data on FDI have been matched with data drawn from the Eurostat Regio
database. Forward linkages have been constructed using the OECD Input/Output database. By estimating a negative binomial model, we find that regions specialised in those (manufacturing) sectors that are high potential users of business services attract more FDI than other regions. This confirms the role of forward linkages for the localisation of business service FDI, particularly in the case of manufacturing.
Fiscal Spending Multiplier Calculations Based on Input-Output Tables? An Application to EU Member States
Intervention. European Journal of Economics and Economic Policies,
Fiscal spending multiplier calculations have attracted considerable attention in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. Much of the current literature is based on VAR estimation methods and DSGE models. In line with the Keynesian literature we argue that many of these models probably underestimate the fiscal spending multiplier in recessions. The income-expenditure model of the fiscal spending multiplier can be seen as a good approximation under these circumstances. In its conventional form this model suffers from an underestimation of the multiplier due to an overestimation of the import intake of domestic absorption. In this article we apply input-output calculus to solve this problem. Multipliers thus derived are comparably high, ranging between 1.4 and 1.8 for many member states of the European Union. GDP drops due to budget consolidation might therefore be substantial in times of crisis.