Selektivität, soziale Bindung und räumliche Mobilität - Eine Analyse der Rückkehrpräferenz nach Ostdeutschland
Lutz Schneider, Alexander Kubis, D. Wiest
Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie,
Selectivity, social ties and spatial mobility. An analysis of preferences for return migration to East Germany. In the public debate, brain drain from East Germany is supposed to be the most critical trend regarding the development and catching up of the New Länder. Therefore, potential for in- and re-migration has attracted much attention at least in the political context. Our contribution analyses the remigration potential on basis of data from a DFG research project focussing on the re-migration intentions of people formerly emigrated from Saxony-Anhalt. The analysis concentrates on the following aspects: the effect of job market success after emigration; the impact of social ties to the origin and the host region and on the selectivity of re-migration preferences. The econometric results confirm several expected effects: On the one hand an individual’s job market success reduces the intention to return. Likewise, the re-migration preference increases for people whose expectations were disappointed. On the other hand, the relevance of social ties to the origin region for re-migration dispositions is confirmed by the estimations. Yet, regarding selectivity of re-migration preferences in terms of human capital econometric results are somewhat ambiguous.
Endogenous Selection of Comparison Groups, Human Capital Formation, and Tax Policy
Oded Stark, Walter Hyll, Y. Wang
We consider a setting in which the acquisition of human capital entails a change of location in social space that causes individuals to revise their comparison groups. Skill levels are viewed as occupational groups. Moving up the skill ladder by acquiring additional human capital, in itself rewarding, leads to a shift in the individual’s inclination to compare himself with a different, and on average better-paid, comparison group, in itself penalizing. We shed new light on the dynamics of human capital formation, and suggest novel policy interventions to encourage human capital formation in the aggregate and reduce inter-group income inequality.
Why are East Germans not More Mobile? Analyzing the Impact of Social Ties on Regional Migration
Peter Bönisch, Lutz Schneider
Individuals’ preferences in transition regions are still shaped by the former communist system. We test this ‘Communism legacy’ hypothesis by examining the impact of acculturation in a communist regime on social network participation and, as a consequence, on preferences for spatial mobility. We focus on the paradigmatic case of East Germany where mobility intentions seem to be substantially weaker than in the western part. Applying an IV ordered probit approach we firstly find that East German people acculturated in a Communist system are more invested in locally bounded informal social capital than West Germans. Secondly, we confirm that membership in such locally bounded social networks reduces the intention to move away. Thirdly, after controlling for the social network effect the mobility gap between East and West substantially reduces. Low spatial mobility of the eastern population, we conclude, is to an important part attributable to a social capital endowment characteristic to post-communist economies.
Institutional transition, social capital mix and local ties – Does Communist legacy explain low labour mobility?
Peter Bönisch, Lutz Schneider
Der Artikel geht der Frage nach, wieso Ostdeutsche trotz schlechter Arbeitsmarktbedingungen eine vergleichsweise geringe räumliche Mobilität aufweisen. Auf Basis des GSOEP wird ein simultanes Drei-Gleichungs-Modell (Geordnetes Probit) geschätzt, welches belegt, dass informelles Sozialkapital die regionale Mobilität verringert, während es formales Sozialkapital unterstützt. Ostdeutsche, welche im Kommunismus aufgewachsen sind, sind stärker im lokal gebundenen informalen Kapital investiert als im formalen Typ. Die geringere Mobilität ist somit zu einem erheblichen Teil dem systemspezifischen Sozialkapital-Mix geschuldet