How Do Banks React to Catastrophic Events? Evidence from Hurricane Katrina
Review of Finance,
This paper explores how banks react to an exogenous shock caused by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, and how the structure of the banking system affects economic development following the shock. Independent banks based in the disaster areas increase their risk-based capital ratios after the hurricane, while those that are part of a bank holding company on average do not. The effect on independent banks mainly comes from the subgroup of highly capitalized banks. These independent and highly capitalized banks increase their holdings in government securities and reduce their total loan exposures to non-financial firms, while also increasing new lending to these firms. With regard to local economic development, affected counties with a relatively large share of independent banks and relatively high average bank capital ratios show higher economic growth than other affected counties following the catastrophic event.
21.03.2018 • 5/2018
Was die Bankenunion blockiert
Die Europäische Kommission will den Europäischen Bankensektor besser regulieren und überwachen. In vielen EU-Mitgliedstaaten werden die dafür notwendigen Richtlinien aber nur sehr zögerlich umgesetzt. Die Hintergründe liegen überraschenderweise kaum im Bereich der Politik und Bankenstruktur, sondern bei den institutionellen Rahmenbedingungen und den schon existierenden Regulierungen in den Mitgliedstaaten, wie Michael Koetter, Thomas Krause und Lena Tonzer vom Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH) herausfanden.
Contestability, Technology and Banking
ZEW Discussion Papers, No. 09-007,
We estimate the effect of internet penetration on retail bank margins in the euro area. Based on an adapted Baumol  type contestability model, we argue that the internet has reduced sunk costs and therefore increased contestability in retail banking. We test this conjecture by estimating the model using semi-aggregated data for a panel of euro area countries. We utilise time series and cross-sectional variation in internet penetration. We find support for an increase in contestability in deposit markets, and no effect for loan markets. The paper suggests that for time and savings deposits, the presence of brick and mortar bank branches may no longer be of first order importance for the assessment of the competitive structure of the market.
Bank Concentration and Retail Interest Rates
Journal of Banking & Finance,
The recent wave of mergers in the euro area raises the question whether the increase in concentration has offset the increase in competition in European banking through deregulation. We test this question by estimating a simple Cournot model of bank pricing. We construct country and product specific measures of bank concentration and find that for loans and demand deposits increasing concentration may have resulted in less competitive pricing by banks, whereas for savings and time deposits, the model is rejected, suggesting increases in contestability and/or efficiency in these markets. Finally, the paper discusses some implications for tests of the effect of concentration on monetary policy transmission.