The Economic Impact of Changes in Local Bank Presence
This study analyzes the economic consequences of changes in the local bank presence. Using a unique data set of banks, firms and counties in Poland over the period 2009–14, it is shown that changes strengthening the relationship banking model are associated with local labour market improvements and easier small and medium-sized enterprise access to bank debt. However, only the appearance of new, more aggressive owners of large commercial banks stimulates new firm creation.
IWH-FDI-Mikrodatenbank Die IWH-FDI-Mikrodatenbank (FDI = Foreign Direct Investment)...
SMEs and Access to Bank Credit: Evidence on the Regional Propagation of the Financial Crisis in the UK
Journal of Financial Stability,
We study the sensitivity of banks’ credit supply to small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) in the UK with respect to the banks’ financial condition before and during the financial crisis. Employing unique data on the geographical location of all bank branches in the UK, we connect firms’ access to bank credit to the financial condition (i.e., bank health and the use of core deposits) of all bank branches in the vicinity of the firm for the period 2004–2011. Before the crisis, banks’ local financial conditions did not influence credit availability irrespective of the functional distance (i.e., the distance between bank branch and bank headquarters). However, during the crisis, we find that SMEs with banks within their vicinity that have stronger financial conditions faced greater credit availability when the functional distance is close. Our results point to a “flight to headquarters” effect during the financial crisis.
Relationship Banking and SME Financing: The Case of Wales
International Journal of Banking, Accounting and Finance,
Regional disparities in credit availability across the UK have been highlighted in a series of studies as a factor affecting both new firm starts and small firm growth prospects. This paper suggests that relationship banking might be an important means of attenuating differences in credit availability. The paper focuses on the value of relationship banking to SMEs in Wales in the period following the global banking crisis. The results show that SMEs that had developed a customer-loan relationship with their banks had a lower probability of experiencing a worsened credit outcome than those that did not. The implications of the findings for regional development and financial provision are discussed.
Do Local Banking Market Structures Matter for SME Financing and Performance? New Evidence from an Emerging Economy
Journal of Banking & Finance,
This paper investigates the relationship between local banking structures and SMEs’ access to debt and performance. Using a unique dataset on bank branch locations in Poland and firm-, county-, and bank-level data, we conclude that a strong position for local cooperative banks facilitates access to bank financing, lowers financial costs, boosts investments, and favours growth for SMEs. Moreover, counties in which cooperative banks hold a strong position are characterized by a more rapid pace of new firm creation. The opposite effects appear in the majority of cases for local banking markets dominated by foreign-owned banks. Consequently, our findings are important from a policy perspective because they show that foreign bank entry and industry consolidation may raise valid concerns for SME prospects in emerging economies.
Bank Market Power, Factor Reallocation, and Aggregate Growth
Journal of Financial Stability,
Using a unique firm-level sample of approximately 700,000 firm-year observations of German small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), this study seeks to identify the effect of bank market power on aggregate growth components. We test for a pre-crisis sample whether bank market power spurs or hinders the reallocation of resources across informationally opaque firms. Identification relies on the dependence on external finance in each industry and the regional demarcation of regional banking markets in Germany. The results show that bank markups spur aggregate SME growth, primarily through technical change and the reallocation of resources. Banks seem to need sufficient markups to generate the necessary private information to allocate financial funds efficiently.
Financial Constraints of Private Firms and Bank Lending Behavior
Journal of Banking & Finance,
We investigate whether and how financial constraints of private firms depend on bank lending behavior. Bank lending behavior, especially its scale, scope and timing, is largely driven by bank business models which differ between privately owned and state-owned banks. Using a unique dataset on private small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) we find that an increase in relative borrowings from local state-owned banks significantly reduces firms’ financial constraints, while there is no such effect for privately owned banks. Improved credit availability and private information production are the main channels that explain our result. We also show that the lending behavior of local state-owned banks can be sustainable because it is less cyclical and neither leads to more risk taking nor underperformance.
The Impact of Firm and Industry Characteristics on Small Firms’ Capital Structure
Small Business Economics,
We study the impact of firm and industry characteristics on small firms’ capital structure, employing a proprietary database containing financial statements of Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from 2003 to 2005. The firm characteristics suggest that the capital structure decision is consistent with the pecking-order theory: Dutch SMEs use profits to reduce their debt level, and growing firms increase their debt position since they need more funds. We further document that profits reduce in particular short-term debt, whereas growth increases long-term debt. We also find that inter- and intra-industry effects are important in explaining small firms’ capital structure. Industries exhibit different average debt levels, which is in line with the trade-off theory. Furthermore, there is substantial intra-industry heterogeneity, showing that the degree of industry competition, the degree of agency conflicts, and the heterogeneity in employed technology are also important drivers of capital structure.
The Economic Optimality of Sanction Mechanisms in Interorganizational Ego Networks – A Game Theoretical Analysis –
Even though small- and medium-sized firms (SMEs) were believed not to proceed beyond exporting in their internationalization routes, we can observe new types of co-operation intensive entrepreneurial firms – so-called “micromultinational enterprises” (mMNEs) – entering the global landscape. These firms face the challenge to manage and control a portfolio of national and international alliances simultaneously (ego network). The aim of this paper is to provide game theoretically consolidated conditions in order to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of interorganizational sanction mechanisms in an alliance portfolio setting. A game theoretical framework is developed over three stages with increasing complexity. Results show that two out of six analyzed sanction mechanisms do not fulfill the game theoretical condition for effectiveness. The efficiency analysis sensibilizes for discretionary elements in governance structures and demonstrates that not one single sanction mechanism but rather the right choice and combination of different types of sanction mechanisms leads to efficient results. We contribute to the international business, alliance, and network literature in several ways by focusing on alliance portfolios held by mMNEs. In doing so, we move beyond the dyadic level and analyze sanction mechanisms from an ego network perspective, a still widely under-emphasized topic in the literature.
Evaluationsbericht: Das Internet strategisch richtig nutzen
Diskussionsbeiträge des Europäischen Instituts für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW), Universität Potsdam, Nr. 79,
Die Nutzung des Internet und der internetbasierten Dienstleistungen zu Informations- und Kommunikationszwecken ist bereits in vielen mittleren und größeren Unternehmen in Deutschland selbstverständlich geworden. Für andere mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) stellt die Anwendung des Internets eine Herausforderung dar, der sie sich kaum mehr entziehen können, wollen sie nicht Gefahr laufen, ihre im Wettbewerb erlangte Position einzubüßen. Das von der Europäischen Union und dem Land Nordrhein-Westfalen geförderte ADAPT2-Projekt „Das Internet strategisch richtig nutzen“ untersucht die Wirkung von Maßnahmen, die die KMU beim Einstieg in das Internet begleiten sollen. Es geht der Frage nach der Notwendigkeit staatlicher Förderung solcher Maßnahmen nach und liefert Anhaltspunkte für ihre inhaltlich zweckmäßige und quantitativ angemessene Ausgestaltung. Demonstriert werden Möglichkeiten und Ergebnisse der Unterstützung einer Gruppe kleiner und mittlerer nordrhein-westfälischer Maschinenbauunternehmen. Die Leitung des Projekts lag bei der ZENIT GmbH, Mülheim a.d. Ruhr; seine Durchführung erfolgte in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Europäischen Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW) an der Universität Potsdam. Dort erfolgte auch die Projektevaluation, welche sich im wesentlichen auf die Befragung sowohl der teilnehmenden Unternehmen gegen Ende der Förderung wie auch einer Gruppe von nichtteilnehmenden Unternehmen stützt. Es zeigte sich, daß geeignete Begleitmaßnahmen für die beteiligten KMUs
hilfreich waren; zudem zeigt sich weiterer Forschungs- und Beratungsbedarf.