R&D Co-operation in European Post-transition Economies
IWH Discussion Papers,
Innovation systems abroad become more and more important to multinational enterprises (MNEs) as sources of knowledge and technology. On the other hand, MNEs’ foreign subsidiaries can be considered agents of technological and economic development in their target location region. Applying a logit estimation, this discussion paper investigates which firm- and region-specific determinants influence cooperations in the area of research and development (R&D) between the foreign subsidiary and the regional innovation system. Results suggest that especially the foreign subsidiary’s mandate in terms of R&D and management, its size and the regional knowledge stock are positively associated with these co-operations. The analysis focuses on posttransition economies, using the example of five selected CEE countries and East Germany. We exploit a unique dataset – the IWH FDI Micro Database – which holds information on 1,245 foreign subsidiaries in this region.
Effects of Entrepreneurship Education at Universities
Jena Economic Research Papers, Nr. 2012-025,
This study analyzes the impact of entrepreneurship education at universities on the intentions of students to become entrepreneurs or self-employed in the short-term (immediately after graduation) and in the long-term (five years after graduation). A difference-in-differences approach is applied that relates changes in entrepreneurial intentions to changes in the attendance of entrepreneurship classes in the same period. To account for a potential bias due to self-selection into entrepreneurship classes, only individuals having no prior entrepreneurial intentions are analyzed. Our results indicate a stimulating effect of entrepreneurship education on students’ intentions to become entrepreneurs or self-employed in the long-term but a discouraging effect on their intentions in the short-term. These results support the conjecture that entrepreneurship education provides more realistic perspectives on what it takes to be an entrepreneur, resulting in ‘sorting’. Overall, the results indicate that entrepreneurship education may improve the quality of labor market matches, the allocation of resources and talent, and increase social welfare. Not distinguishing between short- and long-term intentions may lead to misleading conclusions regarding the economic and social impact of entrepreneurship education.
Enhancing Market Power by Reducing Switching Costs
A proportional decrease in switching costs increases competition and social welfare. However, a lump-sum decrease in switching costs softens competition and does not invariably increase social welfare.
Incubating an Illusion? Long-term Incubator Firm Performance after Graduation
Growth and Change,
Local economic development policies worldwide perceive business incubation as an effective measure to promote regional growth through the support of young and innovative ventures. The common assumption is that incubation promotes firm growth, in particular after these firms graduated from their incubator organizations. This article investigates the long-term performance of 324 graduate firms from five German business incubators (incubated between 1990 and 2006) after they have (successfully) completed their incubation. The present study does not suffer from a survivor bias, meaning that performance data of non-surviving firms is also included. Using employment and sales measures as performance indicators, this study contributes to our knowledge with regard to long-term incubator firm performance after graduation. While in the first years after graduation there is significant growth of formerly incubated firms, further results do not support the presumption of continuous firm growth beyond incubation. A minority of graduate firms exhibits a strong increase in performance, but the majority of firms do not experience considerable growth.
Transport Costs and the Size Distribution of a Linearly Arranged System of Cities
IWH Discussion Papers,
The question regarding the effects of changing transports costs on the size distribution of cities is an important topic of systems of cities research. The so-called New Economic Geography has already given some answers to this question. One central assumption in this kind of model is a very particular, simplified spatial structure. This contribution investigates the consequences of changing transport costs for a system of cities that are located equidistantly on a straight line. In the case of rising transport costs, the main outcome of this model is worker concentration in the central large cities, while the peripheral regions lose residents.
Human Capital and Fertility in Germany after 1990: Evidence from a Multi-Spell Model
IWH Discussion Papers,
We analyze the timing of birth of the first three children based on German panel
data (GSOEP) within a hazard rate framework. A random effects estimator is
used to accommodate correlation across spells. We consider the role of human
capital – approximated by a Mincer-type regression – and its gender-specific
effects on postponement of parenthood and possible recuperation at higherorder
births. An advantage of the use of panel data in this context consists in
its prospective nature, so that determinants of fertility can be measured when
at risk rather than ex-post, thus helping to reduce the risk of reverse causality.
The analysis finds evidence for strong recuperation effects, i.e., women with
greater human capital endowments follow, on average, a different birth history
trajectory, but with negligible curtailment of completed fertility.