Ricardian Equivalence, Foreign Debt and Sovereign Default Risk
Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization,
We study the impact of sovereign solvency on the private-public savings offset. Using data on 80 economies for 1989–2018, we find robust evidence for a U-shaped pattern in the private-public savings offset in sovereign credit ratings. While the 1:1 savings offset is observed at intermediate levels of sovereign solvency, fiscal deficits are not offset by private savings at extremely low and high levels of sovereign solvency. Particularly, the U-shaped pattern is more pronounced for countries with high levels of foreign ownership of government debt. The U-shaped pattern is an emerging market phenomenon; additionally, it is confirmed when considering foreign currency rating and external public debt, but not for domestic currency rating and domestic public debt. For considerable foreign ownership of sovereign bonds, sovereign default constitutes a net wealth gain for domestic consumers.
What Drives the Commodity-Sovereign Risk Dependence in Emerging Market Economies?
Journal of International Money and Finance,
Using daily data for 34 emerging markets in the period 1994–2016, we find robust evidence that higher export commodity prices are associated with lower sovereign default risk, as measured by lower EMBI spreads. The economic effect is especially pronounced for heavy commodity exporters. Examining the drivers, we find that, first, commodity dependence is higher for countries that export large volumes of commodities, whereas other portfolio characteristics like volatility or concentration are less important. Second, commodity-sovereign risk dependence increases in times of recessions and expansionary U.S. monetary policy. Third, the importance of raw material prices for sovereign financing can likely be mitigated if a country improves institutions and tax systems, attracts FDI inflows, invests in manufacturing, machinery and infrastructure, builds up reserve assets and opens capital and trade accounts. Fourth, the country’s government indebtedness or amount of received development assistance appear to be only of secondary importance for commodity dependence.
The Economic Record of the Government and Sovereign Bond and Stock Returns Around National Elections
Journal of Banking and Finance,
This paper investigates the role of the fiscal and economic record of the incumbent government in shaping the price response of sovereign bonds and stocks to the election outcome in emerging markets and developed countries. For sovereign bonds in emerging markets, we find robust evidence for higher cumulative abnormal returns (CARs) if a government associated with a relatively low primary fiscal balance is voted out of office compared to elections where the fiscal balance was relatively high. This effect of the incumbent government's fiscal record is significantly more pronounced in the presence of high sovereign default risk and strong political veto players, whereas the quality of institutions does not explain differences in effects for different events. We do not find robust effects of the government's fiscal record for developed countries and stocks.
A Market-based Measure for Currency Risk in Managed Exchange Rate Regimes
Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money,
We introduce a novel currency risk measure based on American Depositary Receipts (ADRs). Using an augmented ADR pricing model, we exploit investors’ exposure to potential devaluation losses to derive an indicator of currency risk. Using weekly data for a sample of 807 ADRs located in 21 emerging markets over the 1994–2014 period, we find that a deterioration in the fiscal balance and higher inflation increase currency risk. Interaction models reveal that the fiscal balance and inflation drive the determination of currency risk for countries with poor sovereign rating, low foreign reserves, low capital account openness and managed float regimes.
Zur Zukunft der Energiepreise: Ergebnisse eines Expertenworkshops am IWH
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Im Forschungskontext des in der Abteilung Stadtökonomik am IWH durchgeführten Projektes „Energetische Aufwertung und Stadtentwicklung (EASE)“ fand am 10. Dezember 2010 ein Expertenworkshop statt. Ziel des
Workshops war es, die globalen Zusammenhänge im Spannungsfeld zwischen zukünftiger Energienachfrageentwicklung und Energieträgerverfügbarkeit, technologischen Möglichkeiten und den Herausforderungen durch den Klimawandel zu beleuchten. Im Fokus standen dabei die Entwicklung der Energienachfrage der industriell aufstrebenden Nationen China und Indien, die zukünftigen Veränderungen des Energieträgermixes in Deutschland sowie der Einfluss internationaler und nationaler Klimaschutzpolitik. Gemeinsam mit den vortragenden Experten diskutierten Vertreter aus Wissenschaft, Wirtschaft, Verbänden und Politik die zu erwartenden Effekte auf die Entwicklung der Energiepreise.