01.06.2022 • 12/2022
IWH begrüßt internationale Spitzenforscherin als Leiterin der neuen Abteilung
Kräftiger Schub für die wissenschaftliche Exzellenz des Leibniz-Instituts für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH): Merih Sevilir, eine weltweit renommierte Forscherin für das Zusammenspiel von Finanz- und Arbeitsmärkten, leitet seit heute die jüngste Abteilung des Instituts. Ihre Expertise stärkt ein Alleinstellungsmerkmal des IWH und eröffnet der Politik die Chance auf wesentliche Erkenntnisgewinne.
Access to Public Capital Markets and Employment Growth
Journal of Financial Economics,
This paper examines the effect of going public on firm-level employment. To establish a causal effect, we employ a novel data set of private firms to investigate employment growth in IPO firms relative to a group of firms that file for an IPO but subsequently withdraw their offering. We find that employment increases significantly after going public, and the increase is more pronounced in industries with requirements for highly skilled labor and greater dependence on external finance. Improved ability to undertake acquisitions and a strategic shift toward commercialization, rather than agency problems, explain employment growth. Overall, these results highlight the importance of going public for firms' employment policies.
Global Equity Offerings and Access to Domestic Loan Market: U.S. Evidence
International Review of Financial Analysis,
This study examines whether and to what extend global equity offerings at the IPO stage may affect issuing firms' ability to borrow in the domestic debt market. Tracking bank loans taken by U.S. IPO firms in the domestic syndicated loan market, we observe that global equity offering firms experience more favorable loan price than that offered to their domestic counterparts. This finding holds for a set of robustness tests of endogeneity issues. We also find that, compared with their domestic counterparts, global equity offering firms are less likely to have financial distress, engage more in international diversification, and are more likely to wait a longer time to apply for syndicated loans.
Why are some Chinese Firms Failing in the US Capital Markets? A Machine Learning Approach
Pacific-Basin Finance Journal,
We study the market performance of Chinese companies listed in the U.S. stock exchanges using machine learning methods. Predicting the market performance of U.S. listed Chinese firms is a challenging task due to the scarcity of data and the large set of unknown predictors involved in the process. We examine the market performance from three different angles: the underpricing (or short-term market phenomena), the post-issuance stock underperformance (or long-term market phenomena), and the regulatory delistings (IPO failure risk). Using machine learning techniques that can better handle various data problems, we improve on the predictive power of traditional estimations, such as OLS and logit. Our predictive model highlights some novel findings: failed Chinese companies have chosen unreliable U.S. intermediaries when going public, and they tend to suffer from more severe owners-related agency problems.
Venture Capitalists on Boards of Mature Public Firms
Review of Financial Studies,
Venture capitalists (VCs) often serve on the board of mature public firms long after their initial public offering (IPO), even for companies that were not VC-backed at the IPO. Board appointments of VC directors are followed by increases in research and development intensity, innovation output, and greater deal activity with other VC-backed firms. VC director appointments are associated with positive announcement returns and are followed by an improvement in operating performance. Firms experience higher announcement returns from acquisitions of VC-backed targets following the appointment of a VC director to the board. Hence, in addition to providing finance, monitoring and advice for small private firms, VCs play a significant role in mature public firms and have a broader influence in promoting innovation than has been established in the literature.
Going Public to Acquire? The Acquisition Motive in IPOs
Journal of Financial Economics,
Newly public firms make acquisitions at a torrid pace. Their large acquisition appetites reflect the concentration of initial public offerings (IPOs) in mergers and acquisitions-(M&A-) intensive industries, but acquisitions by IPO firms also outpace those by mature firms in the same industry. IPO firms' acquisition activity is fueled by the initial capital infusion at the IPO and through the creation of an acquisition currency used to raise capital for both cash- and stock-financed acquisitions along with debt issuance subsequent to the IPO. IPO firms play a bigger role in the M&A process by participating as acquirers than they do as takeover targets, and acquisitions are as important to their growth as research and development (R&D) and capital expenditures (CAPEX). The pattern of acquisitions following an IPO shapes the evolution of ownership structure of newly public firms.
How an IPO Helps in M&A
Journal of Applied Corporate Finance,
An initial public offering (IPO) can often provide a powerful stimulus to private companies seeking to pursue an acquisition-driven growth strategy. Based on a comprehensive analysis of U.S. IPOs, the authors show that newly public companies are prolific acquirers. Over 30% of companies conducting an IPO make at least one acquisition in their IPO year, and the typical IPO firm makes about four acquisitions during its first five years as a public company. IPOs facilitate M&A not only by providing infusions of capital but also by creating ongoing access to equity and debt markets for cash-financed deals. In addition, IPOs create an acquisition currency that can prove valuable in stock-financed deals when the shares are attractively priced. The authors also argue that IPOs improve the ability of companies to conduct M&A by resolving some of the valuation uncertainty facing privately held companies.
Verbundvorteile für den Börsengang der Deutschen Bahn ausreichend berücksichtigt?
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Die aktuelle Diskussion um den Umfang des Börsengangs der Deutschen Bahn – unter Einbeziehung des Schienennetzes oder nicht – konzentriert sich im wesentlichen auf Fragen der Wettbewerbswirkung und der zukünftigen Belastung des Staatshaushaltes. Eventuelle Vorteile der bestehenden Organisationsform der Deutschen Bahn, also eines vertikal integrierten Eisenbahnunternehmens, das sowohl den Infrastrukturzugang als auch Transportdienstleistungen anbietet, blieben trotz ihrer Bestätigung in einer Vielzahl theoretischer Analysen weitgehend unberücksichtigt. Die Deutsche Bahn äußerte nun die Befürchtung, daß eine solche Separierung Vorteile der vertikalen Integration (sogenannte Verbundvorteile) vermindern würde und somit nicht geeignet sei, die gesamtgesellschaftliche Wohlfahrt zu erhöhen. In einer paneuropäischen Analyse der Produktivität europäischer Eisenbahnunternehmen wird mit dem Fokus der Untersuchung auf etwaige Verbundvorteile überprüft, ob integrierte Eisenbahnunternehmen eine höhere technische Effizienz aufweisen als vertikal separierte Unternehmen. Dazu wird ein Modell erstellt, das die Effizienz der integrierten Produktionstechnologie im Verhältnis zu einer Referenzgruppe virtueller, aus den separierten Unternehmen konstruierter Beobachtungseinheiten berechnet. Die Ergebnisse weisen auf existierende Verbundvorteile für die Mehrzahl der europäischen Eisenbahnunternehmen hin. Dies sollte in der Entscheidung hinsichtlich des Börsengangs der Deutschen Bahn explizite Berücksichtigung finden.
Markets for Bank Subordinated Debt and Equity in Basel Committee Member Countries
BCBS Working Papers, No. 12,
This Basel Committee working paper is a study of the markets for banks' securities in ten countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States). It aims at contributing to the assessment of the potential effectiveness of direct and indirect market discipline. This is achieved through collecting a rich set of data on the detailed characteristics of the instruments used by banks to tap capital markets, the frequency and size of their issuance activity, and the share of issuing banks in national banking systems. Further, information is collected on the amounts of debt and equity outstanding and about trading volumes and liquidity. Developments over the period from 1990-2001 are evaluated.
The paper focuses on subordinated bonds among banks' debt instruments, because they are the prime class of uninsured instruments suited to generate market discipline and have been proposed by some observers as a mandatory requirement for banks.