Delay Determinants of European Banking Union Implementation
European Journal of Political Economy,
Most countries in the European Union (EU) delay the transposition of European Commission (EC) directives, which aim at reforming banking supervision, resolution, and deposit insurance. We compile a systematic overview of these delays to investigate if they result from strategic considerations of governments conditional on the state of their financial, regulatory, and political systems. Transposition delays pertaining to the three Banking Union directives differ considerably across the 28 EU members. Bivariate regression analyses suggest that existing national bank regulation and supervision drive delays the most. Political factors are less relevant. These results are qualitatively insensitive to alternative estimation methods and lag structures. Multivariate analyses highlight that well-stocked deposit insurance schemes speed-up the implementation of capital requirements, banking systems with many banks are slower in implementing new bank rescue and resolution rules, and countries with a more intensive sovereign-bank nexus delay the harmonization of EU deposit insurance more.
IWH-FDI-Mikrodatenbank Die IWH-FDI-Mikrodatenbank (FDI = Foreign Direct Investment)...
The Effect of the Single Currency on Exports: Comparative Firm-level Evidence
IWH-CompNet Discussion Papers,
We investigate how adopting the euro affects exports using firm-level data from Slovakia and Estonia. In contrast to previous studies, we focus on countries that adopted the euro individually and had different exchange rate regimes prior to doing so. Following the New Trade Theory we consider three types of adjustment: firm selection, changes in product varieties and changes in the average value of the exports that compose the exports of individual firms. The euro effect is identified by a difference in differences analysis comparing exports by firms to the euro area countries with exports to the EU countries that are not members of the euro area. The results highlight the importance of the transaction costs channel related to exchange rate volatility. We find the euro has a strong pro-trade effect in Slovakia, which switched to the euro from a floating exchange rate, while it has almost no effect in Estonia, which had a fixed exchange rate to the euro prior to the euro changeover. Our findings indicate that the euro effect manifested itself mainly through the intensive margin and that the gains from trade were heterogeneous across firm characteristics.
A Market-based Measure for Currency Risk in Managed Exchange Rate Regimes
Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money,
We introduce a novel currency risk measure based on American Depositary Receipts (ADRs). Using an augmented ADR pricing model, we exploit investors’ exposure to potential devaluation losses to derive an indicator of currency risk. Using weekly data for a sample of 807 ADRs located in 21 emerging markets over the 1994–2014 period, we find that a deterioration in the fiscal balance and higher inflation increase currency risk. Interaction models reveal that the fiscal balance and inflation drive the determination of currency risk for countries with poor sovereign rating, low foreign reserves, low capital account openness and managed float regimes.
Welche Faktoren verzögern die Umsetzung der Bankenunion?
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Die Europäische Kommission hat weitreichende Reformen zur Regulierung und Überwachung des europäischen Bankensektors beschlossen, um die Stabilität europäischer Banken zu gewährleisten. In den meisten Mitgliedsländern verzögert sich allerdings die Umsetzung der zugrunde liegenden Richtlinien der Europäischen Kommission. Dieser Beitrag geht den Gründen für diese Verzögerung nach. Es zeigt sich, dass insbesondere bereits existierende Regulierungen und institutionelle Rahmenbedingungen das Tempo der Umsetzung entscheidend bestimmen. Entgegen populären Meinungsäußerungen sind die Struktur der Bankensektoren in den Mitgliedstaaten und politische Faktoren hingegen von nachrangiger Bedeutung.