Gender Pay Gap in American CFOs: Theory and Evidence
Journal of Corporate Finance,
Studies document persistent unexplained gender-based wage gap in labor markets. At the executive level, where skill and education are similar, career interruptions and differences in risk preferences primarily explain the extant gender-based pay gap. This study focuses on CFO compensation contracts of Execucomp firms (1992–2020) and finds no gender-based pay gap. This paper offers several explanations for this phenomenon, such as novel evidence on the risk preferences of females with financial expertise and changes in the social and regulatory climate.
Robots and Female Employment in German Manufacturing
American Economic Association Papers and Proceedings,
We analyze the impact of robot adoption on female employment. Our analysis is based on novel micro data on robot use by German manufacturing establishments linked with social security records. An event study analysis for robot adoption shows increased churning among female workers. Whereas hiring rises significantly at robot adoption, separations increase with a smaller magnitude one year later. Overall, employment effects are modestly positive and strongest for medium-qualified women. We find no adverse employment effects for female workers in any of our broad qualification groups.
Gender, Credit, and Firm Outcomes
Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis,
Small and micro enterprises are usually majority-owned by entrepreneurs. Using a unique sample of loan applications from such firms, we study the role of owners’ gender in bank credit decisions and post-credit-decision firm outcomes. We find that, ceteris paribus, female entrepreneurs are more prudent loan applicants than are males, since they are less likely to apply for credit or to default after loan origination. The relatively more aggressive behavior of male applicants pays off, however, in terms of higher average firm performance after loan origination.
29.07.2021 • 20/2021
Kommunikation statt Konflikt – was weibliche CEOs für Hedgefonds interessant macht
Der Wert weiblich geführter Unternehmen wird durch die Intervention aktivistischer Investoren stärker erhöht als der von Unternehmen mit männlichen CEOs. Das geht aus einer aktuellen Veröffentlichung von Iftekhar Hasan (Fordham University und IWH) und Qiang Wu (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, RPI) am Leibniz Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH) hervor. „Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass weibliche CEOs aufgrund ihrer starken kommunikativen und zwischenmenschlichen Fähigkeiten besonders von der Intervention von aktivistischen Hedgefonds profitieren“, erklärt Iftekhar Hasan. Denn im Durchschnitt erhöht das Eingreifen eines aktivistischen Hedgefonds den Wert des Unternehmens ex post. Um das zu erreichen, setzen aktivistische Hedgefonds wie Carl Icahn, Trian Fundmanagement oder Elliott bevorzugt auf Kommunikation und Kooperation mit dem Management.
Are there Gender-specific Preferences for Location Factors? A Grouped Conditional Logit-model of Interregional Migration Flows in Germany
IWH Discussion Papers,
The article analyses the question whether women and men differ in their tastes for location factors. The question is answered by quantifying the impact of location characteristics on interregional migration flows across Germany. The analysis is based on a grouped conditional logit approach. We augment the framework by controlling for violation of the independence of irrelevant alternatives assumption and for overdispersion. As a result, we find no differences in terms of direction of impact. However, the regressions confirm gender differences in terms of intensity, particularly regarding regional wage levels and the availability of educational institutions.