22.01.2015 • 4/2015
EZB-Staatsanleihekäufe: Langfristig sehr riskant – aber angesichts der akuten Gefahren für die Preisstabilität vertretbar
Die Europäische Zentralbank hat sich für den Kauf von Staatsanleihen in großem Umfang entschieden. Durch den damit verbundenen Rückgang der Umlaufsrendite von Staatsanleihen ist es wahrscheinlich, dass auch die Unternehmenszinsen gesenkt werden können. Dadurch würden mehr realwirtschaftliche Projekte rentabel und die Unternehmensinvestitionen zunehmen. Käufe von Staatsanleihen durch die Notenbank bringen zwar erhebliche Risiken mit sich, sind aber mit Blick auf die akuten Gefahren für die Geldpolitik vertretbar.
The Quantity Theory Revisited: A New Structural Approach
We propose a unified identification scheme to identify monetary shocks and track their propagation through the economy. We combine three approaches dealing with the consequences of monetary shocks. First, we adjust a state space version of the P-star type model employing money overhang as the driving force of inflation. Second, we identify the contemporaneous impact of monetary policy shocks by applying a sign restriction identification scheme to the reduced form given by the state space signal equations. Third, to ensure that our results are not distorted by the measurement error exhibited by the official monetary data, we employ the Divisia M4 monetary aggregate provided by the Center for Financial Stability. Our approach overcomes one of the major difficulties of previous models by using a data-driven identification of equilibrium velocity. Thus, we are able to show that a P-star model can fit U.S. data and money did indeed matter in the United States.
Understanding the Great Recession
American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics,
We argue that the vast bulk of movements in aggregate real economic activity during the Great Recession were due to financial frictions. We reach this conclusion by looking through the lens of an estimated New Keynesian model in which firms face moderate degrees of price rigidities, no nominal rigidities in wages, and a binding zero lower bound constraint on the nominal interest rate. Our model does a good job of accounting for the joint behavior of labor and goods markets, as well as inflation, during the Great Recession. According to the model the observed fall in total factor productivity and the rise in the cost of working capital played critical roles in accounting for the small drop in inflation that occurred during the Great Recession.
Switching to Exchange Rate Flexibility? The Case of Central and Eastern European Inflation Targeters
FIW Working Paper, Nr. 139,
This paper analyzes changes in the monetary policy in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland following the policy shift from exchange rate targeting to inflation targeting around the turn of the millennium. Applying a Markovswitching dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model, switches in the policy parameters and the volatilities of shocks hitting the economies are estimated and quantified. Results indicate the presence of regimes of weak and strong responses of the central banks to exchange rate movements as well as periods of high and low volatility. Whereas all three economies switched to a less volatile regime over time, findings on changes in the policy parameters reveal a lower reaction to exchange rate movements in the Czech Republic and Poland, but an increased attention to it in Hungary. Simulations for the Czech Republic and Poland also suggest their respective central banks, rather than a sound macroeconomic environment, being accountable for reducing volatility in variables like inflation and output. In Hungary, their favorable developments can be attributed to a larger extent to the reduction in the size of external disturbances.