The CompNet Competitiveness Database The Competitiveness Research Network (CompNet)...
Innovation, Reallocation, and Growth
American Economic Review,
We build a model of firm-level innovation, productivity growth, and reallocation featuring endogenous entry and exit. A new and central economic force is the selection between high- and low-type firms, which differ in terms of their innovative capacity. We estimate the parameters of the model using US Census microdata on firm-level output, R&D, and patenting. The model provides a good fit to the dynamics of firm entry and exit, output, and R&D. Taxing the continued operation of incumbents can lead to sizable gains (of the order of 1.4 percent improvement in welfare) by encouraging exit of less productive firms and freeing up skilled labor to be used for R&D by high-type incumbents. Subsidies to the R&D of incumbents do not achieve this objective because they encourage the survival and expansion of low-type firms.
Mapping Potentials for Input-Output Based Innovation Flows in Industrial Clusters – An Application to Germany
Economic Systems Research,
Our paper pursues two aims: first, it presents an approach based on input–output innovation flow matrices to study intersectoral innovation flows within industrial clusters. Second, we apply this approach to the identification of structural weaknesses in East Germany relative to the western part of the country. The case of East Germany forms an interesting subject because while its convergence process after unification began promisingly in the first half of the 1990s, convergence has since slowed down. The existing gap can now be traced mainly to structural weaknesses in the East German economy, such as the absence of strong industrial cluster structures. With this in mind, we investigate whether East Germany does in fact reveal the abovementioned structural weaknesses. Does East Germany possess fewer industrial clusters? Are they less connected? Does East Germany lack specific clusters that are also important for the non-clustered part of the economy?
Actors and Interactions – Identifying the Role of Industrial Clusters for Regional Production and Knowledge Generation Activities
Growth and Change,
This paper contributes to the empirical literature on systematic methodologies for the identification of industrial clusters. It combines a measure of spatial concentration, qualitative input–output analysis, and a knowledge interaction matrix to identify the production and knowledge generation activities of industrial clusters in the Federal State of Saxony in Germany. It describes the spatial allocation of the industrial clusters, identifies potentials for value chain industry clusters, and relates the production activities to the activities of knowledge generation in Saxony. It finds only a small overlap in the production activities of industrial clusters and general knowledge generation activities in the region, mainly driven by the high-tech industrial cluster in the semiconductor industry. Furthermore, the approach makes clear that a sole focus on production activities for industrial cluster analysis limits the identification of innovative actors.
Network Embeddedness, Geographical Co-location or Both? The Impact of Distinct and Combined Proximity Effects on Firm-level Innovation Output in the German Laser Industry
Industry and Innovation,
What Drives Innovation Output from Subsidized R&D Cooperation? — Project-level Evidence from Germany
Using a large dataset of 406 subsidized R&D cooperation projects, we provide detailed insights into the relationship between project characteristics and innovation output. Patent applications and publications are used as measures for the innovation output of an R&D project. We find that large-firm involvement is strongly positively related with the number of patent applications, but not with the number of publications. Conversely, university involvement has positive effects on projects’ innovation output in terms of the number of publications but not in terms of patent applications. In general, projects’ funding as measure of projects’ size is an important predictor of the innovation output of R&D cooperation projects. No significant effects are found for the number of partners as (an alternative) measure of projects’ size, for spatial proximity between cooperation partners, for the involvement of a public institute for applied research, and for prior cooperation experiences. We derive conclusions for the design of R&D cooperation support schemes.
A Systemic View on Knowledge-based Development Metrics
International Journal of Knowledge-Based Development,
Drawing on the systems perspective of innovation processes, this article proposes a conceptual approach for a comprehensive analysis of regional knowledge generation and transfer. Instead of focusing on one single indicator, the approach emphasizes the importance to take multiple channels of knowledge transfer into account. This provides valuable insights into the spatial structure of innovation processes on different levels. We disentangle the innovation process and consider four different layers: i.) publications in peer-reviewed journals, ii.) patent applications, iii.) formal R&D collaboration projects, the iv.) localized input-output relations. Further, we demonstrate the relevance of the „multi-layer approach‟ by applying it empirically to a specific regional innovation system: The Free State of Saxony – a federal state in Germany. We argue that the approach could be a valuable tool to inform policy-makers about knowledge-based regional development strategies.
The Identification of Regional Industrial Clusters Using Qualitative Input-Output Analysis (QIOA)
The 'cluster theory' has become one of the main concepts promoting regional competitiveness, innovation, and growth. As most empirical applications focus on measures of concentration of one industrial branch in order to identify regional clusters, the appropriate analysis of specific vertical relations is developing in this discussion. This paper tries to identify interrelated sectors via national input-output tables with the help of minimal flow analysis (MFA). The regionalization of these national industry templates is carried out with the allocation of branch-specific production values on regional employment. As a result, the paper shows concentrations of vertical clusters in only 27 of 439 German Nomenclature des Units Territoriales Statistiques (NUTS)-3 regions.
Analyzing Innovation Drivers in the German Laser Industry: the Role of Positioning in the Social and Geographical Space
IWH Discussion Papers,
Empirical and theoretical contributions provide strong evidence that firm-level performance outcomes in terms of innovativeness can either be determined by the firm’s position in the social space (network effects) or by the firm’s position in the geographical space (co-location effects). Even though we can observe quite recently first attempts in bringing together these traditionally distinct research streams (Whittington et al. 2009), research on interdependent network and geographical co-location effects is still rare. Consequently, we seek to answer the following research question: considering that the effects of social and geographic proximity on firm’s innovativeness can be interdependent, what are the distinct and combined effects of firm’s network and geographic position on firm-level innovation output? We analyze the innovative performance of German laser source manufacturers between 1995 and 2007. We use an official database on publicly funded R&D collaboration projects in order to construct yearly networks and analyze firm’s network positions. Based on information on population entries and exits we calculate various types of geographical proximity measures between private sector and public research organizations (PRO). We use patent grants as dependent variable in order to measure firm-level innovation output. Empirical results provide evidence for distinct effect of network degree centrality. Distinct effect of firm’s geographical co-location to laser-related public research organization promotes patenting activity. Results on combined network and co-location effects confirms partially the existence of in-terdependent proximity effects, even though a closer look at these effects reveals some ambiguous but quite interesting findings.