Identifying Rent-sharing Using Firms‘ Energy Input Mix
Matthias Mertens, Steffen Müller, Georg Neuschäffer
IWH Discussion Papers,
We present causal evidence on the rent-sharing elasticity of German manufacturing firms. We develop a new firm-level Bartik instrument for firm rents that combines the firms‘ predetermined energy input mix with national energy carrier price changes. Reduced-form evidence shows that higher energy prices depress wages. Instrumental variable estimation yields a rent-sharing elasticity of approximately 0.20. Rent-sharing induced by energy price variation is asymmetric and driven by energy price increases, implying that workers do not benefit from energy price reductions but are harmed by price increases. The rent-sharing elasticity is substantially larger in small (0.26) than in large (0.17) firms.
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Micro-mechanisms behind Declining Labor Shares: Rising Market Power and Changing Modes of Production
International Journal of Industrial Organization,
I derive a micro-founded framework showing how rising firm market power on product and labor markets and falling aggregate labor output elasticities provide three competing explanations for falling labor shares. I apply my framework to 20 years of German manufacturing sector micro data containing firm-specific price information to study these three distinct drivers of declining labor shares. I document a severe increase in firms’ labor market power, whereas firms’ product market power stayed comparably low. Changes in firm market power and a falling aggregate labor output elasticity each account for one half of the decline in labor's share.
The Impact of Active Aggregate Demand on Utilisation-adjusted TFP
IWH Discussion Papers,
Non-clearing goods markets are an important driver of capacity utilisation and total factor productivity (TFP). The trade-off between goods prices and household search effort is central to goods market matching and therefore drives TFP over the business cycle. In this paper, I develop a New-Keynesian DSGE model with capital utilisation, worker effort, and expand it with goods market search-and-matching (SaM) to model non-clearing goods markets. I conduct a horse-race between the different capacity utilisation channels using Bayesian estimation and capacity utilisation survey data. Models that include goods market SaM improve the data fit, while the capital utilisation and worker effort channels are rendered less important compared to the literature. It follows that TFP fluctuations increase for demand and goods market mismatch shocks, while they decrease for technology shocks. This pattern increases as goods market frictions increase and as prices become stickier. The paper shows the importance of non-clearing goods markets in explaining the difference between technology and TFP over the business cycle.
IWH-FDI-Mikrodatenbank Die IWH-FDI-Mikrodatenbank (FDI = Foreign Direct Investment)...
Individualism, Human Capital Formation, and Labor Market Success
Katharina Hartinger, Sven Resnjanskij, Jens Ruhose, Simon Wiederhold
CESifo Working Paper,
There is an ongoing debate about the economic effects of individualism. We establish that individualism leads to better educational and labor market outcomes. Using data from the largest international adult skill assessment, we identify the effects of individualism by exploiting variation between migrants at the origin country, origin language, and person level. Migrants from more individualistic cultures have higher cognitive skills and larger skill gains over time. They also invest more in their skills over the life-cycle, as they acquire more years of schooling and are more likely to participate in adult education activities. In fact, individualism is more important in explaining adult skill formation than any other cultural trait that has been emphasized in previous literature. In the labor market, more individualistic migrants earn higher wages and are less often unemployed. We show that our results cannot be explained by selective migration or omitted origin-country variables.
Involuntary Unemployment and the Business Cycle
Lawrence J. Christiano, Mathias Trabandt, Karl Walentin
Review of Economic Dynamics,
Can a model with limited labor market insurance explain standard macro and labor market data jointly? We construct a monetary model in which: i) the unemployed are worse off than the employed, i.e. unemployment is involuntary and ii) the labor force participation rate varies with the business cycle. To illustrate key features of our model, we start with the simplest possible framework. We then integrate the model into a medium-sized DSGE model and show that the resulting model does as well as existing models at accounting for the response of standard macroeconomic variables to monetary policy shocks and two technology shocks. In addition, the model does well at accounting for the response of the labor force and unemployment rate to these three shocks.
The Value of Smarter Teachers: International Evidence on Teacher Cognitive Skills and Student Performance
Eric A. Hanushek, Marc Piopiunik, Simon Wiederhold
Journal of Human Resources,
We construct country-level measures of teacher cognitive skills using unique assessment data for 31 countries. We find substantial differences in teacher cognitive skills across countries that are strongly related to student performance. Results are supported by fixed-effects estimation exploiting within-country between-subject variation in teacher skills. A series of robustness and placebo tests indicate a systematic influence of teacher skills as distinct from overall differences among countries in the level of cognitive skills. Moreover, observed country variations in teacher cognitive skills are significantly related to differences in women’s access to high-skill occupations outside teaching and to salary premiums for teachers.
Die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung Sachsen-Anhalts seit 1990
Oliver Holtemöller, Axel Lindner
In diesem Beitrag wird die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung Sachsen-Anhalts seit 1990 im Kontext des ostdeutschen Transformationsprozesses von einer Zentralverwaltungswirtschaft zu einer Marktwirtschaft beschrieben. Die wirtschaftliche Leistungsfähigkeit Sachsen-Anhalts hat in den frühen 1990er Jahren zunächst schnell gegenüber Westdeutschland aufgeholt, vor allem weil der Kapitalstock modernisiert und erweitert worden ist. Seit einiger Zeit stagniert der Aufholprozess jedoch, und das Bruttoinlandsprodukt je Erwerbstätigen liegt etwa 20% unter dem westdeutschen Niveau. Die wirtschaftspolitische Herausforderung besteht darin, den Aufholprozess durch die Förderung von Forschung und Innovation und durch bessere Qualifizierung der Erwerbstätigen weiter voranzubringen.