Do Start-ups Provide Employment Opportunities for Disadvantaged Workers?
Industrial and Labor Relations Review,
This article compares the hiring patterns of start-ups and incumbent firms to analyze whether start-ups offer relatively more job opportunities to disadvantaged workers. Using administrative linked employer–employee data for Germany that provide the complete employment biographies of newly hired workers, the authors show that young firms are more likely than incumbents to hire applicants who are older, foreign, or unemployed, or who have unstable employment histories, arrive from outside the labor force, or were affected by a plant closure. Analysis of entry wages shows that penalties for these disadvantaged workers, however, are higher in start-ups than in incumbent firms. Therefore, even if start-ups provide employment opportunities for certain groups of disadvantaged workers, the quality of these jobs in terms of initial remuneration appears to be low.
SSRN Working Papers,
We examine the relationship between protracted CEO successions and stock returns. In protracted successions, an incumbent CEO announces his or her resignation without a known successor, so the incumbent CEO becomes a “lame duck.” We find that 31% of CEO successions from 2005 to 2014 in the S&P 1500 are protracted, during which the incumbent CEO is a lame duck for an average period of about 6 months. During the reign of lame duck CEOs, firms generate an annual four-factor alpha of 11% and exhibit significant positive earnings surprises. Investors’ under-reaction to no news on new CEO information and underestimation of the positive effects of the tournament among the CEO candidates drive our results.
Do Startups Provide Employment Opportunities for Disadvantaged Workers?
IZA Discussion Paper Series,
This paper analyzes whether startups offer job opportunities to workers potentially facing labor market problems. It compares the hiring patterns of startups and incumbents in the period 2003 to 2014 using administrative linked employer-employee data for Germany that allow to take the complete employment biographies of newly hired workers into account. The results indicate that young plants are more likely than incumbents to hire older and foreign applicants as well as workers who have instable employment biographies, come from unemployment or outside the labor force, or were affected by a plant closure. However, an analysis of entry wages reveals that disadvantageous worker characteristics come along with higher wage penalties in startups than in incumbents. Therefore, even if startups provide employment opportunities for certain groups of disadvantaged workers, the quality of these jobs in terms of initial remuneration seems to be low.
Trade Union Membership and Paid Vacation in Germany
IZA Journal of Labor Economics,
In Germany, dependent employees take almost 30 days of paid vacation annually. We enquire whether an individual’s trade union membership affects the duration of vacation. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for the period 1985 to 2010 and employing pooled OLS-estimators, we find that being a union member goes along with almost one additional day of vacation per year. Estimations exploiting the panel structure of our data suggest that a smaller part of this vacation differential can be due to the union membership status, while self-selection effects play a more important role.
Socially Gainful Gender Quotas
Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization,
We study the impact of gender quotas on the acquisition of human capital. We assume that individuals’ formation of human capital is influenced by the prospect of landing high-pay top positions, and that these positions are regulated by gender-specific quotas. In the absence of quotas, women consider their chances of getting top positions to be lower than men’s. The lure of top positions induces even men of relatively low ability to engage in human capital formation, whereas women of relatively high ability do not expect to get top positions and do not therefore engage in human capital formation. Gender quotas discourage men who are less efficient in forming human capital, and encourage women who are more efficient in forming human capital. We provide a condition under which the net result of the institution of gender quotas is an increase in human capital in the economy as a whole.
The Emergence of Wage Coordination in the Central Western European Metal Sector and its Relationship to European Economic Policy
IWH Discussion Papers,
In the European Monetary Union the transnational coordination of collective wage bargaining has acquired increased importance on the trade union agenda. The metal sector has been at the forefront of these developments. This paper addresses the issue of crossborder coordination of wage setting in the metal sector in the central western European region, that is, in Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium, where coordination practices have become firmly established in comparison to other sectors. When testing the interaction of wage developments in the metal sector of these three countries, relevant macroeconomic (inflation and labour productivity) and sector-related variables (employment, export-dependence) are considered with reference to the wage policy guidelines of the European Commission and the European Metalworkers’ Federation. Empirical evidence can be found for a wage coordination effect in the form of increasing compliance with the wage policy guidelines of the European Metalworkers’ Federation. The evidence for compliance with the stability-oriented wage guideline of the European Commission is weaker.
Liberalization of Electricity Markets in Selected European Countries
Diskussionsbeiträge des Europäischen Instituts für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW), Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Nr. 124,
Der Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit Fragen der Liberalisierung der Elektrizitätsmärkte in der EU. Man kann feststellen, dass die Gemeinschaftsdirektive 96/92/EC die Wechselbeziehungen der Elektrizitätsmärkte nicht ausreichend behandelt. Außerdem wird vor allem in Deutschland der Zugang für Dritte nicht effektiv gefördert, wobei der Zusammenschluss eines großen Elektrizitätsunternehmens und einem dominanten Gasunternehmen neue spezielle Fragen aufgeworfen hat. Hingegen verläuft der Liberalisierungsprozess in Skandinavien konsequenter. Osteuropäische EU-Beitrittsländer sind langfristig potenzielle Elektrizitätsexporteure sobald Modernisierungen zu niedrigeren Energie- und Elektrizitätsverbrauch führen. Russland sollte rasch WTO-Mitglied werden, um Zugang zu den westeuropäischen Elektrizitätsmärkten zu bekommen, wobei Russland in den gesamten Liberalisierungsdiskussionen noch keine Rolle gespielt hat. Mittelfristig können Überschusskapazitäten in einer EU-27 erwartet werden. Zweifelhaft jedoch ist, ob Politiker, die ansonsten so ehrgeizige Ambitionen in der Umweltpolitik zeigen, einer gesamteuropäischen Liberalisierung der Elektrizitätsmärkte zustimmen werden. Außerdem werden regulierungspolitische Aspekte behandelt.