Exposure to Conflict, Migrations and Long-run Education and Income Inequality: Evidence from Bosnia and Herzegovina
Defence and Peace Economics,
We investigate the long-term relationship between conflict-related migration and individual socioeconomic inequality. Looking at the post-conflict environment of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), a former Yugoslav state most heavily impacted by the wars of the early 1990s, the paper focuses on differences in educational performance and income between four groups: migrants, internally displaced persons, former external migrants, and those who did not move. The analysis leverages a municipality-representative survey (n ≈ 6,000) that captured self-reported education and income outcomes as well as migration histories. We find that individuals with greater exposure to conflict had systematically worse educational performance and lower earnings two decades after the war. Former external migrants now living in BiH have better educational and economic outcomes than those who did not migrate, but these advantages are smaller for external migrants who were forced to move. We recommend that policies intended to address migration-related discrepancies should be targeted on the basis of individual and family experiences caused by conflict.
Die Schließung von Polizeiposten führt zu einem Anstieg der Diebstahlkriminalität
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Die Zusammenlegung von Polizeikräften durch die Schließung von Polizeiposten ist ein vielbeobachtetes Phänomen in entwickelten Volkswirtschaften. Polizeiposten stellen einen bedeutenden und sichtbaren Teil der öffentlichen Infrastruktur dar. Als Ergebnis der vorliegenden Studie zeigt sich, dass die Schließung von Polizeiposten zu einem Anstieg von Autodiebstählen und Wohnungseinbrüchen führt. Diese Resultate können nicht durch Verdrängungseffekte in andere Regionen, veränderte Einsatzstrategien der Polizeieinheiten oder eine geringere Inhaftierung von Kriminellen erklärt werden. Vielmehr sind sie konsistent mit einer veränderten Wahrnehmung der Aufklärungswahrscheinlichkeit. Somit zeigt sich, dass die Sichtbarkeit von lokalen Polizeiposten zur Abschreckung und demnach zur Kriminalitätsbekämpfung beiträgt.
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The Gender Reveal: The Effect of Sons on Young Fathers’ Criminal Behavior and Labor Market Activities
Based on New Zealand’s administrative court charges data, we document child gender-specific differences in future criminal behavior of young fathers. The deterrent impact of having a son on the future likelihood of receiving convictions persists for as long as ten years post-childbirth. Utilizing population-wide monthly tax registers and Census data, we provide key insights into the role model hypothesis. We show that young fathers with a son have (i) a higher likelihood of being in employment, (ii) higher wages and salaries, (iii) lower benefit dependency, (iv) better qualification, and (v) a higher likelihood of being in a partnered relationship.
The Place-based Effects of Police Stations on Crime: Evidence from Station Closures
Journal of Public Economics,
Many countries consolidate their police forces by closing down local police stations. Police stations represent an important and visible aspect of the organization of police forces. We provide novel evidence on the effect of centralizing police offices through the closure of local police stations on crime outcomes. Combining matching with a difference-in-differences specification, we find an increase in reported car theft and burglary in residential properties. Our results are consistent with a negative shift in perceived detection risks and are driven by heterogeneous station characteristics. We can rule out alternative explanations such as incapacitation, crime displacement, and changes in police employment or strategies at the regional level. We argue that criminals are less deterred due to a lower visibility of the local police.
Do Digital Information Technologies Help Unemployed Job Seekers Find a Job? Evidence from the Broadband Internet Expansion in Germany
European Economic Review,
This paper studies effects of the introduction of a new digital mass medium on reemployment of unemployed job seekers. We combine data on broadband internet availability at the local level with German individual register data. We address endogeneity by exploiting technological peculiarities that affected the roll-out of broadband internet. Results show that broadband internet improves reemployment rates after the first months in unemployment for males. Complementary analyses with survey data suggest that internet access mainly changes male job seekers’ search behavior by increasing online search and the number of job applications.