The (Heterogenous) Economic Effects of Private Equity Buyouts
IWH Discussion Papers,
The effects of private equity buyouts on employment, productivity, and job reallocation vary tremendously with macroeconomic and credit conditions, across private equity groups, and by type of buyout. We reach this conclusion by examining the most extensive database of U.S. buyouts ever compiled, encompassing thousands of buyout targets from 1980 to 2013 and millions of control firms. Employment shrinks 13% over two years after buyouts of publicly listed firms – on average, and relative to control firms – but expands 13% after buyouts of privately held firms. Post-buyout productivity gains at target firms are large on average and much larger yet for deals executed amidst tight credit conditions. A post-buyout tightening of credit conditions or slowing of GDP growth curtails employment growth and intra-firm job reallocation at target firms. We also show that buyout effects differ across the private equity groups that sponsor buyouts, and these differences persist over time at the group level. Rapid upscaling in deal flow at the group level brings lower employment growth at target firms.
Why is Unemployment so Countercyclical?
Review of Economic Dynamics,
We argue that wage inertia plays a pivotal role in allowing empirically plausible variants of the standard search and matching model to account for the large countercyclical response of unemployment to shocks.
Expectation Formation, Financial Frictions, and Forecasting Performance of Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium Models
Historical Social Research,
Special Issue: Governing by Numbers
In this paper, we document the forecasting performance of estimated basic dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) models and compare this to extended versions which consider alternative expectation formation assumptions and financial frictions. We also show how standard model features, such as price and wage rigidities, contribute to forecasting performance. It turns out that neither alternative expectation formation behaviour nor financial frictions can systematically increase the forecasting performance of basic DSGE models. Financial frictions improve forecasts only during periods of financial crises. However, traditional price and wage rigidities systematically help to increase the forecasting performance.
Are there Business Cycles “beyond GDP“? Alternative Measures to GDP at Business Cycle Frequencies
Applied Economics Quarterly,
We discuss properties of alternatives or complements to GDP as a measure of welfare at business cycle frequencies. Our results imply that the suggested indicators show practically no cycle at all and their methodologies can be questioned. First, data are not available at an appropriate quality and frequency. Second, the suggested time series sometimes correlate negatively with each other. Third, cross-section and quasi-panel evidence based on different samples of countries reveals no impact of the stance of the business cycle on some suggested welfare measures. Therefore, alternative welfare measures do not show an equal picture on business cycle frequencies compared to GDP-based measures.
Understanding the Great Recession
American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics,
We argue that the vast bulk of movements in aggregate real economic activity during the Great Recession were due to financial frictions. We reach this conclusion by looking through the lens of an estimated New Keynesian model in which firms face moderate degrees of price rigidities, no nominal rigidities in wages, and a binding zero lower bound constraint on the nominal interest rate. Our model does a good job of accounting for the joint behavior of labor and goods markets, as well as inflation, during the Great Recession. According to the model the observed fall in total factor productivity and the rise in the cost of working capital played critical roles in accounting for the small drop in inflation that occurred during the Great Recession.
Konjunkturelle Effekte des Ölpreisfalls in den Jahren 2014 bis 2016
Wirtschaftskammer Österreich: Wirtschaftspolitische Blätter,
Der Ölpreis ist seit der Mitte des Jahres 2014 deutlich gesunken. Die konjunkturellen Effekte von Ölpreisänderungen hängen davon ab, ob nachfrageseitige oder angebotsseitige Ursachen die Preisänderung auslösen. Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird der Ölpreisrückgang seit Mitte des Jahres 2014 in eine konjunkturelle und eine ölmarktspezifische Komponente zerlegt. Anschließend wird mit dem internationalen Konjunkturmodell des IWH analysiert, welchen Beitrag der Ölpreisrückgang zur konjunkturellen Entwicklung seit Mitte des Jahres 2014 geleistet hat und welche Effekte bis zum Ende des Jahres 2016 noch zu erwarten sind. Es werden sowohl ölexportierende (Russland) als auch ölimportierende Länder (G7-Länder und Österreich) betrachtet. Das Bruttoinlandsprodukt wird im betrachteten Länderkreis in den USA und in Japan am stärksten stimuliert, während der Ölpreisfall in Russland das Bruttoinlandsprodukt deutlich dämpft.