Global Banks and Synthetic Funding: The Benefits of Foreign Relatives
Fernando Eguren-Martin, Matias Ossandon Busch, Dennis Reinhardt
Journal of Money, Credit and Banking,
Abstract This paper examines the effect of dislocations in foreign currency (FX) swap markets ("CIP deviations") on bank lending. Using data from UK banks we show that when the cost of obtaining swap-based funds in a particular foreign currency increases, banks reduce the supply of cross-border credit in that currency. This effect is increasing in the degree of banks' reliance on swap-based FX funding. Access to foreign relatives matters as banks employ internal capital markets to shield their cross-border FX lending supply from the described channel. Partial substitution occurs from banks outside the UK not affected by changes in synthetic funding costs.
Credit Supply Shocks: Financing Real Growth or Takeovers?
Tobias Berg, Daniel Streitz, Michael Wedow
Review of Corporate Finance Studies,
How do firms invest when financial constraints are relaxed? We document that firms affected by a large positive credit supply shock predominantly increase borrowing for transaction-based purposes. These treated firms have larger asset and employment growth rates; however, growth entirely stems from the increased takeover activity. Announcement returns indicate a low quality of the credit-supply-induced takeover activity. These results offer the possibility that credit-driven growth can simply reflect redistribution, rather than net gains in assets or employment.
To Securitize or To Price Credit Risk?
Danny McGowan, Huyen Nguyen
Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis,
Do lenders securitize or price loans in response to credit risk? Exploiting exogenous variation in regional credit risk due to foreclosure law differences along US state borders, we find that lenders securitize mortgages that are eligible for sale to the Government Sponsored Enterprises (GSEs) rather than price regional credit risk. For non-GSE-eligible mortgages with no GSE buyback provision, lenders increase interest rates as they are unable to shift credit risk to loan purchasers. The results inform the debate surrounding the GSEs' buyback provisions, the constant interest rate policy, and show that underpricing regional credit risk increases the GSEs' debt holdings.
Political Ideology and International Capital Allocation
Elisabeth Kempf, Mancy Luo, Larissa Schäfer, Margarita Tsoutsoura
Journal of Financial Economics,
Does investors’ political ideology shape international capital allocation? We provide evidence from two settings—syndicated corporate loans and equity mutual funds—to show ideological alignment with foreign governments affects the cross-border capital allocation by U.S. institutional investors. Ideological alignment on both economic and social issues plays a role. Our empirical strategy ensures direct economic effects of foreign elections or government ties between countries are not driving the result. Ideological distance between countries also explains variation in bilateral investment. Combined, our findings imply ideological alignment is an important, omitted factor in models of international capital allocation.
Cultural Values of Parent Bank Board Members and Lending by Foreign Subsidiaries: The Moderating Role of Personal Traits
Iftekhar Hasan, Krzysztof Jackowicz, Oskar Kowalewski, Łukasz Kozłowski
Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money,
In this study, we investigate whether the cultural values of a parent bank’s board members affect lending by the bank’s foreign subsidiaries and how this influence is moderated by the board members’ personal traits. Using a new dataset on foreign-owned banks and their parent companies, we find that average individualism, uncertainty avoidance, and indulgence within parent bank boards significantly impact lending by foreign subsidiaries. We establish that different sensitivities of female and male directors modify the relevance of individual cultural dimensions in lending by foreign bank subsidiaries. Moreover, we show that parent bank directors’ cultural values have a stronger impact on lending by the bank’s foreign subsidiaries when those directors have enough time to fulfill their duties and possess higher ownership stakes in the parent companies.
14.02.2023 • 4/2023
IWH-Studie zu Europas Top-Bankern: Riskante Geschäfte trotz Boni-Obergrenze
Vor zehn Jahren beschloss das EU-Parlament, die flexible Vergütung von Bankmanagern zu deckeln. Doch die Obergrenze für Boni verfehlt ihr Ziel: Manager systemrelevanter europäischer Banken gehen unverändert hohe Risiken ein, zeigt eine Studie des Leibniz-Instituts für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH).
COVID-19 Pandemic and Global Corporate CDS Spreads
Iftekhar Hasan, Miriam Marra, Thomas Y. To, Eliza Wu, Gaiyan Zhang
Journal of Banking and Finance,
We examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the credit risk of companies around the world. We find that increased infection rates affect firms more adversely as reflected by the wider increase in their credit default swap (CDS) spreads if they are larger, more leveraged, closer to default, have worse governance and more limited stakeholder engagement, and operate in more highly exposed industries. We observe that country-level determinants such as GDP, political stability, foreign direct investment, and commitment to crisis management (income support, health and lockdown policies) also affect the sensitivity of CDS spreads to COVID-19 infection rates. A negative amplification effect exists for firms with high default probability in countries with fiscal constraints. A direct comparison between global CDS and stock markets reveals that the CDS market prices in a distinct set of corporate traits and government policies in pandemic times.
The Disciplining Effect of Supervisory Scrutiny in the EU-wide Stress Test
Christoffer Kok, Carola Müller, Steven Ongena, Cosimo Pancaro
Journal of Financial Intermediation,
Relying on confidential supervisory data related to the 2016 EU-wide stress test, this paper presents novel empirical evidence that supervisory scrutiny associated to stress testing has a disciplining effect on bank risk. We find that banks that participated in the 2016 EU-wide stress test subsequently reduced their credit risk relative to banks that were not part of this exercise. Relying on new metrics for supervisory scrutiny that measure the quantity, potential impact, and duration of interactions between banks and supervisors during the stress test, we find that the disciplining effect is stronger for banks subject to more intrusive supervisory scrutiny during the exercise. We also find that a strong risk management culture is a prerequisite for the supervisory scrutiny to be effective. Finally, we show that a similar disciplining effect is not exerted neither by higher capital charges nor by more transparency and related market discipline induced by the stress test.
20.12.2022 • 31/2022
Konjunktur aktuell: Keine tiefe Rezession trotz Energiekrise und Zinsanstieg
Die hohen Energiepreise und die Verschlechterung des Finanzierungsumfelds belasten die deutsche Konjunktur. Allerdings dürfte die Schwächephase über den Winter moderat ausfallen, auch weil die Energiepreisbremsen die privaten Einkommen stützen. Das Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH) prognostiziert, dass das Bruttoinlandsprodukt im Jahr 2022 aufgrund der Erholung von der Pandemie in den ersten drei Quartalen um 1,8% zugenommen haben, den Winter über aber leicht sinken und im Jahr 2023 insgesamt stagnieren dürfte (Ostdeutschland: 1,8% und 0,2%). Die Inflation geht nach 7,8% im Jahr 2022 auf 6,5% im Jahr 2023 zurück.
Trust and Contracting with Foreign Banks: Evidence from China
Desheng Yin, Iftekhar Hasan, Liuling Liu, Haizhi Wang
Journal of Asian Economics,
We empirically investigate whether firms doing business in regions characterized as having high social trust receive preferential treatment on loan contractual terms by foreign banks. Tracing cross-border syndicated lending activities in China, we document that firms located in provinces with higher social trust scores obtain significantly low costs of bank loans and experience less stringent collateral requirement. To address the potential endogeneity issues, we adopt an instrumental variable approach and a two-sided matching model, and report consistent results. We also estimate a system of three equations through three-stage-least square estimator to accommodate the joint determination of price and non-price terms in loan contracts. In addition, we find that the effect of social trust on cost of bank loans is more prominent for firms located in provinces with relatively less developed formal institutions.