Size of Training Firms and Cumulated Long-run Unemployment Exposure – The Role of Firms, Luck, and Ability in Young Workers’ Careers
International Journal of Manpower,
Import Competition and Firm Productivity: Evidence from German Manufacturing
IWH Discussion Papers,
This study analyses empirically the effects of import competition on firm productivity (TFPQ) using administrative firm-level panel data from German manufacturing. We find that only import competition from high-income countries is associated with positive incentives for firms to invest in productivity improvement, whereas import competition from middle- and low-income countries is not. To rationalise these findings, we further look at the characteristics of imports from the two types of countries and the effects on R&D, employment and sales. We provide evidence that imports from high-income countries are relatively capital-intensive and technologically more sophisticated goods, at which German firms tend to be relatively good. Costly investment in productivity appears feasible reaction to such type of competition and we find no evidence for downscaling. Imports from middle- and low-wage countries are relatively labour-intensive and technologically less sophisticated goods, at which German firms tend to generally be at disadvantage. In this case, there are no incentives to invest in innovation and productivity and firms tend to decline in sales and employment.
Micro-mechanisms Behind Declining Labour Shares: Market Power, Production Processes, and Global Competition
IWH-CompNet Discussion Papers,
This article investigates how changing production processes and increasing market power at the firm level relate to a fall in Germany’s manufacturing sector labour share. Coinciding with the fall of the labour share, I document a rise in firms’ product and labour market power. Notably, labour market power is a more relevant source of firms’ market power than product market power. Increasing product and labour market power, however, only account for 30% of the fall in the labour share. The remaining 70% are explained by a transition of firms towards less labour-intensive production activities. I study the role of final product trade in causing those secular movements. I find that rising foreign export demand contributes to a decline in the labour share by increasing labour market power within firms and by inducing a reallocation of economic activity from nonexporting- high-labour-share to exporting-low-labour-share firms
IWH-FDI-Mikrodatenbank Die IWH-FDI-Mikrodatenbank (FDI = Foreign Direct Investment)...
29.03.2018 • 6/2018
Ostdeutsche Flächenländer können mit westdeutschem Wirtschaftswachstum nicht mithalten
Deutschlands Wirtschaft ist im Jahr 2017 um stolze 2,2% gewachsen. Bei näherem Hinsehen offenbart sich aber schnell: Die Wachstumszahlen von Bundesländern wie Bayern (+2,8%), Bremen (+3,3%) und Niedersachsen (+2,5%) verheißen deutlich mehr als die der ostdeutschen Flächenländer, beispielsweise die Sachsens (+1,4%) und vor allem Sachsen-Anhalts (0,8%), wie die heute vorgelegten BIP-Wachstumszahlen des Arbeitskreises Volkswirtschaftliche Gesamtrechnungen der Länder (VGRdL) für 2017 zeigen. Damit geht die Schere zwischen Ost- und Westdeutschland nicht weiter zu. „Der Aufholprozess stagniert; die ostdeutschen Länder sollten ihre Wirtschaftspolitik mehr auf die bessere Qualifizierung der Erwerbstätigen und Innovationen ausrichten“, so Oliver Holtemöller, Vizepräsident des Leibniz-Instituts für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH) und Leiter der Abteilung Makroökonomik.
Economic Failure and the Role of Plant Age and Size
Small Business Economics,
This paper introduces a large-scale administrative panel data set on corporate bankruptcy in Germany that allows for an econometric analysis of involuntary exits where previous studies mixed voluntary and involuntary exits. Approximately 83 % of all bankruptcies occur in plants with not more than 10 employees, and 61 % of all bankrupt plants are not older than 5 years. The descriptive statistics and regression analysis indicate substantial negative age dependence with respect to bankruptcy risk but confirm negative size dependence for mature plants only. Our results corroborate hypotheses stressing increasing capabilities and positional advantage, both predicting negative age dependence with respect to bankruptcy risk due to productivity improvements. The results are not consistent with the theories explaining age dependence via imprinting or structural inertia.
Cooperation Events, Ego-Network Characteristics and Firm Innovativeness – Empirical Evidence from the German Laser Industry
IWH Discussion Papers,
We study how firm innovativeness is related to individual cooperation events and the structure and dynamics of firms’ ego-networks employing a unique panel dataset for the full population of 233 German laser source manufactures between 1990 and 2010. Firm innovativeness is measured by yearly patent applications as well as patent grants with a two year time-lag. Network measures are calculated on the basis of 570 knowledge-related publicly funded R&D alliances. Estimation results from a panel data count model with fixed effects are suggestive of direct innovation effects due to individual cooperation events, but only as long as structural ego-network characteristics are neglected. Innovativeness is robustly related to ego-network size and ego-network brokerage whereas ego-network density reveals some surprising results.
Network Embeddedness, Geographical Co-location or Both? The Impact of Distinct and Combined Proximity Effects on Firm-level Innovation Output in the German Laser Industry
Industry and Innovation,