Innovation and Top Income Inequality
Review of Economic Studies,
In this article, we use cross-state panel and cross-U.S. commuting-zone data to look at the relationship between innovation, top income inequality and social mobility. We find positive correlations between measures of innovation and top income inequality. We also show that the correlations between innovation and broad measures of inequality are not significant. Next, using instrumental variable analysis, we argue that these correlations at least partly reflect a causality from innovation to top income shares. Finally, we show that innovation, particularly by new entrants, is positively associated with social mobility, but less so in local areas with more intense lobbying activities.
Measuring the Impact of Household Innovation using Administrative Data
NBER Working Paper,
We link USPTO patent data to U.S. Census Bureau administrative records on individuals and firms. The combined dataset provides us with a directory of patenting household inventors as well as a time-series directory of self-employed businesses tied to household innovations. We describe the characteristics of household inventors by race, age, gender and U.S. origin, as well as the types of patented innovations pursued by these inventors. Business data allows us to highlight how patents shape the early life-cycle dynamics of nonemployer businesses. We find household innovators are disproportionately U.S. born, white and their age distribution has thicker tails relative to business innovators. Data shows there is a deficit of female and black inventors. Household inventors tend to work in consumer product areas compared to traditional business patents. While patented household innovations do not have the same impact of business innovations their uniqueness and impact remains surprisingly high. Back of the envelope calculations suggest patented household innovations granted between 2000 and 2011 might generate $5.0B in revenue (2000 dollars).
Innovation, Reallocation, and Growth
American Economic Review,
We build a model of firm-level innovation, productivity growth, and reallocation featuring endogenous entry and exit. A new and central economic force is the selection between high- and low-type firms, which differ in terms of their innovative capacity. We estimate the parameters of the model using US Census microdata on firm-level output, R&D, and patenting. The model provides a good fit to the dynamics of firm entry and exit, output, and R&D. Taxing the continued operation of incumbents can lead to sizable gains (of the order of 1.4 percent improvement in welfare) by encouraging exit of less productive firms and freeing up skilled labor to be used for R&D by high-type incumbents. Subsidies to the R&D of incumbents do not achieve this objective because they encourage the survival and expansion of low-type firms.
Aktuelle Trends: Ostdeutsche Patentdynamik in Thüringen und Sachsen am höchsten
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Die kleinräumig gegliederte und auf den Erfindersitz bezogene Statistik der Patentanmeldungen des Deutschen Patent- und Markenamts (DPMA) gibt Aufschluß über regionale Unterschiede hinsichtlich der Erfindungsaktivitäten. Da Patente zugleich eine wichtige Vorstufe wirtschaftlicher Innovationen darstellen, wird das Ausmaß der Patentierungen regelmäßig als output-orientierter Indikator für die Innovationsorientierung der Wirtschaft in der jeweils betrachteten Region herangezogen. Zudem informiert die – hier betrachtete – Veränderung der Zahl der Patentanmeldungen in einem bestimmten Zeitraum über die Entwicklungsdynamik der Patentieraktivitäten in einer Region.