Stress Tests and Small Business Lending
Journal of Financial Economics,
Post-crisis stress tests have altered banks’ credit supply to small business. Banks most affected by stress tests reallocate credit away from riskier markets and toward safer ones. They also raise interest rates on small loans. Quantities fall most in high-risk markets where stress-tested banks own no branches, and prices rise mainly where they do. The results suggest that banks price the stress-test induced increase in capital requirements where they have local knowledge, and exit where they do not. Stress tests do not, however, reduce aggregate credit. Small banks seem to increase their share in geographies formerly reliant on stress-tested lenders.
Sovereign Stress, Banking Stress, and the Monetary Transmission Mechanism in the Euro Area
IWH Discussion Papers,
In this paper, we investigate to what extent sovereign stress and banking stress have contributed to the increase in the level and in the heterogeneity of nonfinancial firms’ refinancing costs in the Euro area during the European debt crisis and how they did affect the monetary transmission mechanism. We identify the increasing effect of government bond yield spreads (sovereign stress) and the share of non-performing loans (banking stress) on firms’ financing costs using an instrumental-variable approach. Moreover, we estimate both sources of stress to have significantly impaired the monetary transmission mechanism during the European debt crisis.
15.06.2017 • 26/2017
Kranke Banken treiben Schulden von Zombie-Firmen nach oben
Angeschlagene Eurostaaten wie Griechenland und Spanien haben aktuell nicht nur mit ihren Banken zu kämpfen, sondern auch mit hochverschuldeten Firmen im eigenen Land. Eine Gruppe von Forschern unter der Beteiligung von Michael Koetter vom Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH) fand nun heraus: Scheitern die Banken daran, ihre finanziellen Probleme in den Griff zu bekommen, behindert das auch den Schuldenabbau von Unternehmen, die ohnehin ums Überleben kämpfen – und steigert mitunter sogar deren Schulden.
Crowdfunding and Bank Stress
Banking Beyond Banks and Money: A Guide to Banking Services in the Twenty-First Century,
Bank instability may induce borrowers to use crowdfunding as a source of external finance. A range of stress indicators help identify banks with potential credit supply constraints, which then can be linked to a unique, manually constructed sample of 157 new ventures seeking equity crowdfunding, for comparison with 200 ventures that do not use crowdfunding. The sample comprises projects from all major German equity crowdfunding platforms since 2011, augmented with controls for venture, manager, and bank characteristics. Crowdfunding is significantly more likely for new ventures that interact with stressed banks. Innovative funding sources are thus particularly relevant in times of stress among conventional financiers. But crowdfunded ventures are generally also more opaque and risky than new ventures that do not use crowdfunding.
11.08.2016 • 34/2016
Banken-Stresstest 2016: Deutsche und italienische Banken mit ähnlichen Ergebnissen
Europäische Bankenaufsicht (EBA) und Europäische Zentralbank (EZB) haben die Ergebnisse ihres Banken-Stresstests 2016 vorgelegt. Der Test zeigt, dass die meisten europäischen Banken unter den angenommenen Stressszenarien recht stabil bleiben würden. „Bedenklich stimmt allerdings, dass die italienischen Banken nicht schlechter abschneiden als die deutschen Großbanken“, kommentiert IWH-Präsident Reint E. Gropp. „Eine Aufstockung des Eigenkapitals der beiden deutschen Großbanken scheint angeraten zu sein. Außerdem hat der Stresstest leider zwei entscheidende Faktoren nicht berücksichtigt: Erstens wurde eine lang anhaltende Niedrigzinspolitik der EZB nicht simuliert. Und zweitens berücksichtigt der Test nicht die Möglichkeit, dass viele kleine Institute gleichzeitig in Schwierigkeiten geraten könnten, was wiederum im Kontext der schwindenden Zinsmargen immer wahrscheinlicher werden könnte“, sagt Gropp. Der Stresstest sollte auch nicht davon ablenken, dringend die Probleme der italienischen Banken zu lösen.
Monetary Policy under the Microscope: Intra-bank Transmission of Asset Purchase Programs of the ECB
IWH Discussion Papers,
With a unique loan portfolio maintained by a top-20 universal bank in Germany, this study tests whether unconventional monetary policy by the European Central Bank (ECB) reduced corporate borrowing costs. We decompose corporate lending rates into refinancing costs, as determined by money markets, and markups that the bank is able to charge its customers in regional markets. This decomposition reveals how banks transmit monetary policy within their organizations. To identify policy effects on loan rate components, we exploit the co-existence of eurozone-wide security purchase programs and regional fiscal policies at the district level. ECB purchase programs reduced refinancing costs significantly, even in an economy not specifically targeted for sovereign debt stress relief, but not loan rates themselves. However, asset purchases mitigated those loan price hikes due to additional credit demand stimulated by regional tax policy and enabled the bank to realize larger economic margins.
Stress Testing and Bank Efficiency: Evidence from Europe
International Journal of Corporate Finance and Accounting,
This study examines whether and how the stress testing of European banks in 2010, 2011, and 2014 is related to their technical, allocative, and cost efficiency. Using a sample of large commercial banks operating in 20 European countries, and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), the authors perform comparisons between banks that were included in one of the three European stress tests and untested banks operating in the same countries. They estimate various specifications as for the inputs and outputs, cross-section and pooled estimations, and they also examine alternative samples as for the ownership of banks. In general, the authors conclude that banks included in the stress-test exercises are more efficient that their counterparties. The differences tend to be statistically significant in the case of allocative efficiency and cost efficiency, but not in the case of technical efficiency. With regards to the latter form of efficiency, the results depend upon the specification and the stress test in question.
Shocks at Large Banks and Banking Sector Distress: The Banking Granular Residual
Journal of Financial Stability,
Size matters in banking. In this paper, we explore whether shocks originating at large banks affect the probability of distress of smaller banks and thus the stability of the banking system. Our analysis proceeds in two steps. In a first step, we follow Gabaix and construct a measure of idiosyncratic shocks at large banks, the so-called Banking Granular Residual. This measure documents the importance of size effects for the German banking system. In a second step, we incorporate this measure of idiosyncratic shocks at large banks into an integrated stress-testing model for the German banking system following De Graeve et al. (2008). We find that positive shocks at large banks reduce the probability of distress of small banks.
Growth, Volatility, and Credit Market Imperfections: Evidence from German Firms
Journal of Economic Studies,
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, it studies whether output volatility and growth are linked at the firm-level, using data for German firms. Second, it explores whether the link between volatility and growth depends on the degree of credit market imperfections.
Design/methodology/approach – The authors use a novel firm-level dataset provided by the Deutsche Bundesbank, the so-called Financial Statements Data Pool. The dataset has time series observations for German firms for the period 1997-2004, and the authors use information on the debt-to-assets or leverage ratio of firms to proxy for credit-constraints at the firm-level. As additional proxies for the importance of credit market imperfections, we use information on the size and on the legal status of firms.
Findings – The authors find that higher volatility has a negative impact on growth for small and a positive impact for larger firms. Higher leverage is associated with higher growth. At the same time, there is heterogeneity in the determinants of growth across firms from different sectors and across firms with a different legal status.
Practical implications – While most traditional macroeconomic models assume that growth and volatility are uncorrelated, a number of microeconomic models suggest that the two may be linked. However, it is unclear whether the link is positive or negative. The paper presents additional evidence regarding this question. Moreover, understanding whether credit market conditions affect the link between volatility and growth is of importance for policy makers since it suggests a channel through which the credit market can have long-run welfare implications. The results stress the importance of firm-level heterogeneity for the effects and effectiveness of economic policy measures.
Originality/value – The paper has two main novel features. First, it uses a novel firm-level dataset to analyze the determinants of firm-level growth. Second, it analyzes the growth-volatility nexus using firm-level data. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first paper, which addresses the link between volatility, growth, and credit market imperfections using firm-level data.