The New EU Countries and Euro Adoption
In the new member states of the EU which have not yet adopted the euro, previous adoption strategies have come under scrutiny. The spillovers and contagion from the global financial crisis revealed a new threat to the countries’ real convergence goal, namely considerable vulnerability to the transmission of financial instability to the real economy. This paper demonstrates the existence of extreme risks for real convergence and argues in favour of a new adoption strategy which does not announce a target date for the currency changeover and which allows for more flexible and countercyclical monetary, fiscal and wage policies.
FDI Micro Database – Methodological Note – Survey 2012 in East Germany
With the integration of post-communist countries into the European and global economy
after 1990, there was strong research interest into the role of multinational enterprises
(MNEs) for economic restructuring and technological catching-up. Most of the existing
empirical studies on locational determinants of FDI and host country effects did not take
account of East Germany. This might be for different reasons: Firstly, theoretical and
empirical difficulties derive from the fact that East Germany followed a distinct transition
pattern as it became a region subsumed in a larger and more mature economy. Secondly,
East Germany received private investment from foreign as well as West German firms. Only
the first can be considered as a foreign direct investment (FDI). Finally, there had long been
a lack of micro data to adequately analyse the activities of corresponding firms from a
production as well as technological perspective.
Internationalisation Theory and Technological Accumulation - An Investigation of Multinational Affiliates in East Germany
Studies in Economic Transition, London,
The integration of post-communist countries into the European and global economy after 1990 has led to a renewed interest in the role of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in economic restructuring and technological development. This book explains the expansion of MNEs into a transition economy from the technology accumulation perspective. Key assumptions of the technological accumulation approach towards firms' internationalisation are tested, using the examples of foreign and West German MNEs in East Germany. The effects of technological externalities on MNE location choice are analysed, in addition to an exploration of the factors driving the location of foreign affiliates' research and development (R&D) and innovation activities. The book provides a novel and comprehensive empirical approach to assess the developmental role of MNEs, deriving significant economic policy implications for transition and emerging economies.
Protect and Survive? Did Capital Controls Help Shield Emerging Markets from the Crisis?
Using a new dataset on capital market regulation, we analyze whether capital controls helped protect emerging markets from the real economic consequences of the 2009 financial and economic crisis. The impact of the crisis is measured by the 2009 forecast error of a panel state space model, which analyzes the business cycle dynamics of 63 middle-income countries. We find that neither capital controls in general nor controls that were specifically targeted to derivatives (that played a crucial role during the crisis) helped shield economies. However, banking regulation that limits the exposure of banks to global risks has been highly successful.
Fiscal Spending Multiplier Calculations based on Input-Output Tables – with an Application to EU Members
Fiscal spending multiplier calculations have been revived in the aftermath of the
global financial crisis. Much of the current literature is based on VAR estimation
methods and DSGE models. The aim of this paper is not a further deepening of
this literature but rather to implement a calculation method of multipliers which is
suitable for open economies like EU member states. To this end, Input-Output tables are used as by this means the import intake of domestic demand components can be isolated in order to get an appropriate base for the calculation of the relevant import quotas. The difference of this method is substantial – on average the calculated multipliers are 15% higher than the conventional GDP fiscal spending multiplier for EU members. Multipliers for specific spending categories are comparably high, ranging between 1.4 and 1.8 for many members of the EU. GDP drops due to budget consolidation might therefore be substantial if monetary policy is not able to react in an expansionary manner.
Evaluating Communication Strategies for Public Agencies: Transparency, Opacity, and Secrecy
The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics,
This paper analyses in a simple global games framework welfare effects stemming from different communication strategies of public agencies if strategies of agents are complementary to each other: Communication can either be fully transparent, or the agency opaquely publishes only its overall assessment of the economy, or it keeps information completely secret. It is shown that private agents put more weight on their private information in the transparent case than in the case of opacity. Thus, in many cases, the appropriate measure against overreliance on public information is giving more details to the public instead of denying access to public information.