Immigration and Entrepreneurship in the United States
American Economic Review: Insights,
Immigration can expand labor supply and create greater competition for native-born workers. But immigrants may also start new firms, expanding labor demand. This paper uses U.S. administrative data and other data resources to study the role of immigrants in entrepreneurship. We ask how often immigrants start companies, how many jobs these firms create, and how these firms compare with those founded by U.S.-born individuals. A simple model provides a measurement framework for addressing the dual roles of immigrants as founders and workers. The findings suggest that immigrants act more as "job creators" than "job takers" and that non-U.S. born founders play outsized roles in U.S. high-growth entrepreneurship
The European Refugee Crisis and the Natural Rate of Output
Applied Economics Letters,
The European Commission follows a harmonized approach for calculating structural (potential) output for EU member states that takes into account labour as an important ingredient. This article shows how the recent huge migrants’ inflow to Europe affects trend output. Due to the fact that the immigrants immediately increase the working population but effectively do not enter the labour market, we illustrate that the potential output is potentially upward biased without any corrections. Taking Germany as an example, we find that the average medium-term potential growth rate is lower if the migration flow is modelled adequately compared to results based on the unadjusted European Commission procedure.
Immigration and the Rise of American Ingenuity
American Economic Review,
We build on the analysis in Akcigit, Grigsby, and Nicholas (2017) by using US patent and census data to examine the relationship between immigration and innovation. We construct a measure of foreign born expertise and show that technology areas where immigrant inventors were prevalent between 1880 and 1940 experienced more patenting and citations between 1940 and 2000. The contribution of immigrant inventors to US innovation was substantial. We also show that immigrant inventors were more productive than native born inventors; however, they received significantly lower levels of labor income. The immigrant inventor wage-gap cannot be explained by differentials in productivity.
09.09.2016 • 38/2016
Gefühlte finanzielle Unterlegenheit fördert Fremdenfeindlichkeit
Vergleichen Personen ihren ökonomischen Status mit dem ihrer relevanten sozialen Bezugsgruppe (peergroup) – und fällt dieser Vergleich zu ihrem Nachteil aus –, entwickeln sie eher negative Einstellungen gegenüber Ausländern und Ausländerinnen. Das zeigt eine neue Studie aus dem Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH) anhand von 1990 auf dem Gebiet der DDR erhobenen Daten. Besonders stark ist dieser Effekt, wenn die betroffenen Ausländer und Ausländerinnen aus einem Niedriglohnland stammen.