Is Social Capital Associated with Corporate Innovation? Evidence from Publicly Listed Firms in the U.S.
Journal of Corporate Finance,
We find that social capital in U.S. counties, as captured by strength of social norms and density of social networks, is positively associated with innovation of firms headquartered in the county, as captured by patents and citations. This relation is robust in fixed-effect regressions, instrumental variable regressions with a Bartik instrument, propensity score matching regressions, and a difference-in-differences design that isolates the effects of over time variations in social capital due to corporate headquarter relocations. Strength of social norms plays a more dominant role than density of social networks in producing these empirical regularities. Cross-sectional evidence indicates the prominence of the contracting channel through which social capital relates to innovation. Additionally, we find that social capital is also positively associated with trademarks and effectiveness of corporate R&D expenditures.
Age and High-Growth Entrepreneurship
American Economic Review: Insights,
Many observers, and many investors, believe that young people are especially likely to produce the most successful new firms. Integrating administrative data on firms, workers, and owners, we study start-ups systematically in the United States and find that successful entrepreneurs are middle-aged, not young. The mean age at founding for the 1-in-1,000 fastest growing new ventures is 45.0. The findings are similar when considering high-technology sectors, entrepreneurial hubs, and successful firm exits. Prior experience in the specific industry predicts much greater rates of entrepreneurial success. These findings strongly reject common hypotheses that emphasize youth as a key trait of successful entrepreneurs.
Import Competition and Firm Productivity: Evidence from German Manufacturing
This study analyses empirically the effects of import competition on firm productivity (TFPQ) using administrative firm-level panel data from German manufacturing. We find that only import competition from high-income countries is associated with positive incentives for firms to invest in productivity improvement, whereas import competition from middle- and low-income countries is not. To rationalise these findings, we further look at the characteristics of imports from the two types of countries and the effects on R&D, employment and sales. We provide evidence that imports from high-income countries are relatively capital-intensive and technologically more sophisticated goods, at which German firms tend to be relatively good. Costly investment in productivity appears feasible reaction to such type of competition and we find no evidence for downscaling. Imports from middle- and low-wage countries are relatively labour-intensive and technologically less sophisticated goods, at which German firms tend to generally be at disadvantage. In this case, there are no incentives to invest in innovation and productivity and firms tend to decline in sales and employment.
19.09.2019 • 19/2019
Spätfolgen der Treuhand: Preisgekrönter US-Ökonom startet Forschungsprojekt am IWH
Es ist eine der wichtigsten Auszeichnungen des deutschen Wissenschaftsbetriebs: Der mit 1,5 Millionen Euro dotierte Max-Planck-Humboldt-Forschungspreis geht in diesem Jahr an den Volkswirt Ufuk Akcigit von der Universität Chicago. Am Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH) will Akcigit mit innovativen Methoden untersuchen, warum die Wirtschaft in Ostdeutschland bis heute hinter der westdeutschen zurückbleibt – und welche Rolle die Treuhandanstalt dabei spielt.
The Impact of Innovation and Innovation Subsidies on Economic Development in German Regions
Public innovation subsidies in a regional environment are expected to unfold a positive economic impact over time. The focus of this paper is on an assessment of the long-run impact of innovation and innovation subsidies in German regions. This is scrutinized by an estimation approach combining panel model and time-series characteristics and using regional data for the years 1980–2014. The results show that innovation and innovation subsidies in the long run have a positive impact on the economic development of regions in Germany. This supports a long-term strategy for regional and innovation policy.
History, Microdata, and Endogenous Growth
Annual Review of Economics,
The study of economic growth is concerned with long-run changes, and therefore, historical data should be especially influential in informing the development of new theories. In this review, we draw on the recent literature to highlight areas in which study of history has played a particularly prominent role in improving our understanding of growth dynamics. Research at the intersection of historical data, theory, and empirics has the potential to reframe how we think about economic growth in much the same way that historical perspectives helped to shape the first generation of endogenous growth theories.
Motivating High‐impact Innovation: Evidence from Managerial Compensation Contracts
Financial Markets, Institutions & Instruments,
We investigate the relationship between Chief Executive Officer (CEO) compensation and firm innovation and find that long‐term incentives in the form of options, especially unvested options, and protection from managerial termination in the form of golden parachutes are positively related to corporate innovation, and particularly to high‐impact, exploratory (new knowledge creation) invention. Conversely, non‐equity pay has a detrimental effect on the input, output and impact of innovation. Tests using the passage of an option expensing regulation (FAS 123R) as an exogenous shock to option compensation suggest a causal interpretation for the link between long‐term pay incentives, patents and citations. Furthermore, we find that the decline in option pay following the implementation of FAS 123R has led to a significant reduction in exploratory innovation and therefore had a detrimental effect on innovation output. Overall, our findings support the idea that compensation contracts that protect from early project failure and incentivize long‐term commitment are more suitable for inducing high‐impact corporate innovation.
04.03.2019 • 6/2019
Neue IWH-Publikation zieht Bilanz: „Vereintes Land – drei Jahrzehnte nach dem Mauerfall“
Wie steht Deutschland 30 Jahre nach dem Fall der Berliner Mauer wirtschaftlich da? Eine neue Veröffentlichung des Leibniz-Instituts für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH) zeigt mit anschaulichen Karten und Graphiken, wie sich die Bundesrepublik im internationalen Vergleich entwickelt hat und wie es um die innere Einheit bestellt ist. Neue Befunde liefert die Publikation unter anderem zur Produktivität in Ost und West, zur Entwicklung von Stadt und Land sowie zur Fachkräftesituation.
IWH-FDI-Mikrodatenbank Die IWH-FDI-Mikrodatenbank (FDI = Foreign Direct Investment)...