Total Factor Productivity Growth at the Firm-level: The Effects of Capital Account Liberalization
Journal of International Economics,
This study provides firm-level evidence on the effect of capital account liberalization on total factor productivity (TFP) growth. We find that a one standard deviation increase in the capital account openness indicator constructed by Fernández et al. (2016) is significantly associated with a 0.18 standard deviation increase in firms’ TFP growth rates. The productivity-enhancing effects are stronger for sectors with higher external finance dependence and capital-skill complementarity, and are persistent five years after liberalization. Moreover, we show that potential transmission mechanisms include improved financing conditions, greater skilled labor utilization, and technology upgrades. Finally, we document heterogeneous effects across firm size and tradability, and threshold effects with respect to the country's institutional quality.
Energiekrise: Inflation, Rezession, Wohlstandsverlust Die stark gestiegenen Gaspreise erhöhen die Energiekosten...
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Does Capital Account Liberalization Affect Income Inequality?
Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics,
By adopting an identification strategy of difference‐in‐difference estimation combined with propensity score matching between liberalized and closed countries, this paper provides robust evidence that opening the capital account is associated with an increase in income inequality in developing countries. Specifically, capital account liberalization, in the long run, is associated with a reduction in the income share of the poorest half by 2.66–3.79% points and an increase in that of the richest 10% by 5.19–8.76% points. Moreover, directions and categories of capital account liberalization matter. The relationship is more pronounced when liberalizing inward and equity capital flows.
China’s Monetary Policy Communication: Frameworks, Impact, and Recommendations
IMF Working Paper No. 18/244,
Financial markets are eager for any signal of monetary policy from the People’s Bank of China (PBC). The importance of effective monetary policy communication will only increase as China continues to liberalize its financial system and open its economy. This paper discusses the country’s unique institutional setup and empirically analyzes the impact on financial markets of the PBC’s main communication channels, including a novel communication channel. The results suggest that there has been significant progress but that PBC communication is still evolving toward the level of other major economies. The paper recommends medium-term policy reforms and reforms that can be adopted quickly.
Within Gain, Structural Pain: Capital Account Liberalization and Economic Growth
New Structural Economics Working Paper No. E2018010,
This paper is the first to study the effects of capital account liberalization on structural transformation and compare the contribution of within term and structural term to economic growth. We use a 10-sector-level productivity dataset to decomposes the effects of opening capital account on within-sector productivity growth and cross-sector structural transformation. We find that opening capital account is associated with labor productivity and employment share increment in sectors with higher human capital intensity and external financial dependence, as well as non-tradable sectors. But it results in a growth-reducing structural transformation by directing labor into sectors with lower productivity. Moreover, in the ten years after capital account liberalization, the contribution share of structural transformation decreases while that of within productivity growth increases. We conclude that the relationship between capital account liberalization and economic growth is within gain and structural pain.
Neo-liberalism, the Changing German Labor Market, and Income Distribution: An Institutionalist and Post Keynesian Analysis
Journal of Economic Issues,
This inquiry relies on an Institutionalist and Post Keynesian analysis to explore Germany's neo-liberal project, noting cumulative effects emerging as measurable economic and societal outcomes. Investments in technologies generate rising output-to-capital ratios. Increasing exports offset the Domar problem, but give rise to capital surpluses. National income redistributes in favor of capital. Novel labor market institutions emerge. Following Minsky, good times lead to bad: as seeming successes of neo-liberal policies are accompanied by financial instability, growing disparities in household incomes, and sharp declines in German exports on world markets, resulting in one of the deepest, recent contractions in the industrialized world.
Liberalization and Rules on Regulation in the Field of Financial Services in Bilateral Trade and Regional Integration Agreements
Beiträge zum Transnationalen Wirtschaftsrecht Nr. 97, Halle (Saale),
Die jüngste internationale Finanzkrise hat eine scharfe Debatte um die Ursachen ausgelöst. Liberalisierung und Deregulierung werden hierbei benannt, und Deliberalisierung und Reregulierung scheinen eine natürliche Reaktion zu sein. Aus ökonomischer Perspektive ist diese Schlussfolgerung jedoch nicht berechtigt. Obwohl eine Liberalisierung von Finanzdienstleistungen die Stabilität eines Entwicklungslandes kurzfristig bedrohen kann, so fördert sie doch langfristiges Wirtschaftswachstum wenn gute rechtliche und ökonomische Institutionen die negativen Nebenwirkungen mildern. Um dieses Ziel zu erreichen brauchen Staaten den Politikspielraum zur Implementierung solcher Maßnahmen. Entgegen weitläufiger Meinung ist der Politikspielraum von Staaten keinesfalls übermäßig durch bilateral oder multilateral Abkommen beschränkt. Deren weitreichenden Ausnahmen hinsichtlich der Regulierung erlauben es den Staaten ihren eigenen Weg bei der Regulierung zu verfolgen. Die Herausforderung hierbei besteht vielmehr darin, die entsprechenden Regulierungskapazitäten aufzubauen.
Transport Costs and the Size of Cities: The Case of Russia
Volkswirtschaftliche Diskussionsbeiträge der Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Fakultät, Universität Potsdam, Nr. 93,
Real costs of freight transportation have strong increased in Russia particularly during the period of price liberalization 1992–93. This paper investigates possible connections between rising transport costs and the evolution of the size structure of the system of cities in the Russian Federation and its federal subjects. Empirical findings suggest that under conditions of a closed system agglomeration processes according to the predictions of the model of Tabuchi et al. (2005) would have taken place especially in the periphere regions of the North and Far East.
The Economics of Restructuring the German Electricity Sector
Zeitschrift für Energiewirtschaft,
The debate about the development of German electricity prices after the liberalization of energy markets in 1998 raises the question of failures in market restructuring. However, a general statement would be misleading for two main reasons. Firstly, the price development, analyzed for the exemplary case of household prices, shows significant differences among the stages of the value chain. Secondly, the underlying cost structure might have changed from 1998 to 2004. While such effects can be expected to level out over time, they can distort the comparison of a small period of observation. For these reasons, we analyzed the different price components at a detailed level, finding a considerable price reduction of about 32% in generation and a much lower reduction of 13% in transmission and distribution tariffs. These decreases have been mostly compensated by a significant increase in taxes and subsidies (+56%).