A Control Group Study of Incubators’ Impact to Promote Firm Survival
Journal of Technology Transfer,
It is widely unclear as to whether start-up firms supported by publicly-initiated incubator initiatives have higher survival rates than comparable start-up firms that have not received support by such initiatives. This paper contributes to the underlying discussion by performing a large-scale matched-pairs analysis of the long-term survival of 371 incubator firms (after their graduation) from five German incubators and a control group of 371 comparable non-incubated firms. The analysis covers a 10-year time span. To account for the problem of selection bias, a non-parametric matching approach is applied to identify an appropriate control group. For neither of the five incubator locations, we find statistically significant higher survival probabilities for firms located in incubators compared to firms located outside those incubator organizations. For three incubator locations the analysis reveals statistically significant lower chances of survival for those start-ups receiving support by an incubator. The empirical results, therefore, raise some doubts regarding the impacts of incubation on long-term firm survival.
Who Creates Jobs? Small versus Large versus Young
Review of Economics and Statistics,
The view that small businesses create the most jobs remains appealing to policymakers and small business advocates. Using data from the Census Bureau's Business Dynamics Statistics and Longitudinal Business Database, we explore the many issues at the core of this ongoing debate. We find that the relationship between firm size and employment growth is sensitive to these issues. However, our main finding is that once we control for firm age, there is no systematic relationship between firm size and growth. Our findings highlight the important role of business start-ups and young businesses in U.S. job creation.
Regional Entrepreneurial Opportunities in the Biotech Industry: Exploring the Transition from Award-winning Nascent Entrepreneurs to Real Start-ups
European Planning Studies,
Welche Faktoren beeinflussen maßgeblich die Wahrscheinlichkeit, dass potenzielle bzw. werdende Unternehmensgründer (nascent entrepreneurs) ihre Gründungsabsicht tatsächlich umsetzen? Hierüber ist bislang kaum etwas bekannt. Das Wissen um die zentralen Einflussfaktoren ist jedoch von hoher Relevanz für die Ausgestaltung eines wirtschaftspolitischen Förderinstrumentariums. Existierende Studien legen einen Fokus auf personenspezifische Merkmale, lassen jedoch die regionale Komponente weitgehend unberücksichtigt. Ausgehend von der Annahme, dass Entrepreneurship stark ortsgebunden stattfindet, argumentiert der Beitrag, dass die Triebkräfte des Übergangs von nascent entrepreneurs zur faktischen Unternehmensgründung in regionalen Rahmenbedingungen (regional entrepreneurial opportunities) zu suchen sind. Diese Annahme wird anhand eines Datensatzes von 103 werdenden Gründern der deutschen Biotechnologiebranche empirisch überprüft. Dabei wird zugleich ein neues Maß der Erfassung von nascent entrepreneurs eingeführt. Dieses umfasst Akteure, die aktiv an einem oder mehreren Gründerwettbewerben teilgenommen haben und in mindestens einem Fall als Preisträger daraus hervorgegangen sind (award-winning nascent entrepreneurs). Unter Berücksichtigung technologischer und personenspezifischer Faktoren bestätigt das ökonometrische Modell in hohem Maße die aufgestellten Hypothesen. Demnach wird die Wahrscheinlichkeit, vom potenziellen zum tatsächlichen Gründer zu werden, stark von allgemeinen wie auch spezifischen regionalen Rahmenbedingungen beeinflusst. Zudem kann der Einfluss einer regionalen Gründerkultur bzw. eines positiven Gründerklimas auf die Übergangswahrscheinlichkeit nachgewiesen werden.
Size and Focus of a Venture Capitalist's Portfolio
Review of Financial Studies,
We take a portfolio approach to analyze the investment strategy of a venture capitalist (VC) and show that portfolio size and scope affect both the entrepreneurs' and the VC's incentives to exert effort. A small portfolio improves entrepreneurial incentives because it allows the VC to concentrate the limited human capital on a smaller number of startups, adding more value. A large and focused portfolio is beneficial because it allows the VC to reallocate the limited resources and human capital in the case of startup failure and allows the VC to extract greater rents from the entrepreneurs. We show that the VC finds it optimal to limit portfolio size when startups have higher payoff potential - that is, when providing strong entrepreneurial incentives is most valuable. The VC expands portfolio size only when startup fundamentals are more moderate and when he can form a sufficiently focused portfolio. Finally, we show that the VC may find it optimal to engage in portfolio management by divesting some of the startups early since this strategy allows him to extract a greater surplus.
Organization and Financing of Innovation, and the Choice between Corporate and Independent Venture Capital
Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis,
This paper examines the impact of competition on the optimal organization and financing structures in innovation-intensive industries. We show that as an optimal response to competition, firms may choose external organization structures established in collaboration with specialized start-ups where they provide start-up financing from their own resources. As the intensity of the competition to innovate increases, firms move from internal to external organization of projects to increase the speed of product innovation and to obtain a competitive advantage with respect to rival firms in their industry. We also show that as the level of competition increases, firms provide a higher level of financing for externally organized projects in the form of corporate venture capital (CVC). Our results help explain the emergence of organization and financing arrangements such as CVC and strategic alliances, where large established firms organize their projects in collaboration with external specialized firms and provide financing for externally organized projects from their own internal resources.
Getting out of the ivory tower – New perspectives on the entrepreneurial university
European Journal of International Management,
Based on theoretical considerations about the ‘third mission’ of
universities and the discussion of different types of university-industry relations, we conclude that the entrepreneurial university is a manifold institution with direct
mechanisms to support the transfer of technology from academia to industry
as well as indirect mechanisms in support of new business activities via
entrepreneurship education. While existing literature usually deals with one or
another linking mechanism separately, our central hypothesis is that direct and
indirect mechanisms should be interrelated and mutually complementary. We
emphasise the importance of a more holistic view of the entrepreneurial university
and empirically investigate the scope and interrelatedness of direct technology
transfer mechanisms and indirect mechanisms, such as entrepreneurship education
at German universities. We find a variety of activities in both fields and most
universities’ technology transfer facilities and the providers of entrepreneurship
education co-operate in support of innovative start-ups.
Getting out of the Ivory Tower - New Perspectives on the Entrepreneurial University
Discussion Papers on Entrepreneurship and Innovation,
Based on theoretical considerations about the “third mission” of universities and the discussion of the nature of different university-industry relations, we conclude that the entrepreneurial university is a manifold institution with direct ways to transfer technology from academia to industry as well as indirect connections to industry via entrepreneurship education and training. While existing literature usually deals with one or another linking mechanism separately, our central hypothesises is that direct and indirect mechanisms should be interrelated and mutually complementary. We emphasize the importance of a more holistic view and empirically investigate the scope and interrelatedness of entrepreneurship education and direct technology transfer mechanisms at German universities. We find a variety of activities in both fields and evidence for an identification of HEI with the mission of knowledge commercialisation. Furthermore, it shows that the HEIs’ technology transfer facilities and the entrepreneurship education providers co-operate in support of the creation of spin-offs and innovative start-ups.