Regulation, Innovation and Technology Diffusion - Evidence from Building Energy E fficiency Standards in Germany
Discussionpapers des DIW Berlin,
The impact of environmental regulation on technology diffusion and innovations is studied using a unique data set of German residential buildings. We analyze how energy effi ciency regulations, in terms of minimum standards, affects energy-use in newly constructed buildings and how it induces innovation in the residential-building industry. The data used consists of a large sample of German apartment houses built between 1950 and 2005. Based on this information, we determine their real energy requirements from energy performance certificates and energy billing information. We develop a new measure for regulation intensity and apply a panel-error-correction regression model to energy requirements of low and high quality housing. Our findings suggest that regulation significantly impacts technology adoption in low quality housing. This, in turn, induces improvements in the high quality segment where innovators respond to market signals.
ICT Adoption and Heterogeneity in Production Technologies: Evidence for Chilean Retailers
Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics,
The adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) can have far-reaching effects on the nature of production technologies. Because ICT adoption is incomplete, especially in developing countries, different groups of firms will have different production technologies. We estimate a latent class stochastic frontier model, which allows us to test for the existence of multiple production technologies across firms and consider the associated implications for efficiency measures. We use a unique data set of Chilean retailers, which includes detailed information on ICT adoption. We find three distinct production technologies. The probability of membership in a more productive group is positively related to ICT use.
Credit Union Membership and Use of Internet Banking Technology
B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy,
What makes households use internet banking? Bank adoption of internet banking technology has been widely considered, but relatively few papers address consumer usage of internet banking. This study looks at the determinants of internet banking usage among credit union members in the Western United States. We use call report data from the National Credit Union Administration to calculate the rate of internet banking usage among a credit union's members, which allows us to examine whether variations in institutional characteristics, local economic conditions and membership criteria have an impact on the internet usage rates among members of different credit unions. We find that members in credit unions that were early internet technology adopters have higher usage rates, and that the contribution to usage rates varies among types of online services offered.
The Effects of Shared ATM Networks on the Efficiency of Turkish Banks
This study investigates whether forming shared ATM networks has yielded positive benefits for banks in Turkey by increasing their productive efficiency. Using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach, pure technical and scale efficiency scores of Turkish banks are estimated and analysed for the period 2000–2003. The results suggest that although it is possible to realize positive effects through ATM sharing arrangements, there are multiple factors that determine which banks realize such benefits. The geographical distribution of shared ATMs between urban and rural markets and the level of competition between banks within urban areas are shown to be important determinants of differences in bank efficiency. This discrepancy between the gains associated with ATM sharing may have important implications concerning the adoption and sharing of new technology by banks in developing countries.