A Congestion Theory of Unemployment Fluctuations
American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics,
We propose a theory of unemployment fluctuations in which newhires and incumbentworkers are imperfect substitutes. Hence, attempts to hire away the unemployed during recessions diminish the marginal product of new hires, discouraging job creation. This single feature achieves a ten-fold increase in the volatility of hiring in an otherwise standard search model, produces a realistic Beveridge curve despite countercyclical separations, and explains 30–40% of U.S. unemployment fluctuations. Additionally, it explains the excess procyclicality of new hires’ wages, the cyclical labor wedge, countercyclical earnings losses from job displacement, and the limited steady-state effects of unemployment insurance.
Safety Net or Helping Hand? The Effect of Job Search Assistance and Compensation on Displaced Workers
IWH Discussion Papers,
We provide the first systematic evidence on the effectiveness of a contested policy in Germany to help displaced workers. So-called “transfer companies” (Transfergesellschaften) employ displaced workers for a fixed period, during which time workers are provided with job-search assistance and are paid a wage which is a substantial fraction of their pre-displacement wage. Using rich and accurate data on workers’ employment patterns before and after displacement, we compare the earnings and employment outcomes of displaced workers who entered transfer companies with those that did not. Workers can choose whether or not to accept a position in a transfer company, and therefore we use the availability of a transfer company at the establishment level as an IV in a model of one-sided compliance. Using an event study, we find that workers who enter a transfer company have significantly worse post-displacement outcomes, but we show that this is likely to be the result of negative selection: workers who lack good outside opportunities are more likely to choose to enter the transfer company. In contrast, ITT and IV estimates indicate that the use of a transfer company has a positive and significant effect on employment rates five years after job loss, but no significant effect on earnings. In addition, the transfer company provides significant additional compensation to displaced workers in the first 12 months after job loss.
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Explaining Wage Losses After Job Displacement: Employer Size and Lost Firm Wage Premiums
Journal of the European Economic Association,
This paper investigates whether wage losses after job displacement are driven by lost firm wage premiums or worker productivity depreciations. We estimate losses in wages and firm wage premiums, the latter being measured as firm effects from a two-way fixed-effects wage decomposition. Using new German administrative data on displacements from small and large employers, we find that wage losses are to a large extent explained by losses in firm wage premiums and that premium losses are largely permanent. We show that losses strongly increase with pre-displacement employer size. This provides an explanation for large and persistent wage losses reported in previous displacement studies typically focusing on large employers, only.
06.10.2021 • 24/2021
IWH-Insolvenztrend: Insolvenzzahlen bleiben niedrig, mehr Industriejobs von Insolvenz betroffen
Die Anzahl der Insolvenzen von Personen- und Kapitalgesellschaften verharrte im September in der Nähe der historischen Tiefststände. Die Zahl der betroffenen Jobs im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe stieg dagegen deutlich an. Das Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH) liefert mit dem IWH-Insolvenztrend ein monatliches Update zum bundesweiten Insolvenzgeschehen.