What Drives the Commodity-Sovereign-Risk-Dependence in Emerging Market Economies?
IWH Discussion Papers,
Using daily data for 34 emerging markets in the period 1994-2016, we find robust evidence that higher export commodity prices are associated with higher sovereign bond returns (indicating lower sovereign risk). The economic effect is especially pronounced for heavy commodity exporters. Examining the drivers, we find, first, that commodity-dependence is higher for countries that export large volumes of volatile commodities and that the effect increases in times of recessions, high inflation, and expansionary U.S. monetary policy. Second, the importance of raw material prices for sovereign financing can likely be mitigated if a country improves institutions and tax systems, attracts FDI inflows, invests in manufacturing, machinery and infrastructure, builds up reserve assets and opens capital and trade accounts. Third, the concentration of commodities within a country’s portfolio, its government indebtedness or amount of received development assistance appear to be only of secondary importance for commodity-dependence.
(Since When) Are East and West German Business Cycles Synchronised?
IWH Discussion Papers,
This paper analyses whether and since when East and West German business cycles are synchronised. We investigate real GDP, unemployment rates and survey data as business cycle indicators and employ several empirical methods. Overall, we find that the regional business cycles have synchronised over time. GDP-based indicators and survey data show a higher degree of synchronisation than the indicators based on unemployment rates. However, recently synchronisation among East and West German business cycles seems to become weaker, in line with international evidence.
Business Cylce Effects of the 2014 Oil Price Slump
Wirtschaftskammer Österreich: Wirtschaftspolitische Blätter,
The price for crude oil has dropped remarkably since the middle of the year 2014. Business cycle effects of oil price changes depend on whether these are caused by demand or supply side factors. In the present paper, the decrease in oil prices since the middle of the year 2014 is decomposed into demand side and oil-market specific factors. Subsequently, the contribution of the decline in oil prices to the economic development since the third quarter of 2014 and the expected effects until the end of the year 2016 are analyzed using the international business cycle model of the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH). The analysis considers both, oil-exporting countries (Russia) as well as oil-importing economies (G7 countries and Austria). Economic activity is stimulated strongest in the United States and Japan, whereas it is remarkably curbed in Russia.