IWH Bankruptcy Update: Much more jobs affected by corporate bankruptcy in Germany Considerably faster than the official...
Abnormal Real Operations, Real Earnings Management, and Subsequent Crashes in Stock Prices
Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting,
We study the impact of firms’ abnormal business operations on their future crash risk in stock prices. Computed based on real earnings management (REM) models, firms’ deviation in real operations (DROs) from industry norms is shown to be positively associated with their future crash risk. This association is incremental to that between discretionary accruals (DAs) and crash risk found by prior studies. Moreover, after Sarbanes–Oxley Act (SOX) of 2002, DRO’s predictive power for crash risk strengthens substantially, while DA’s predictive power essentially dissipates. These results are consistent with the prior finding that managers shift from accrual earnings management to REM after SOX. We further develop a suspect-firm approach to capture firms’ use of DRO for REM purposes. This analysis shows that REM-firms experience a significant increase in crash risk in the following year. These findings suggest that the impact of DRO on crash risk is at least partially through REM.
In which Ways do Universities React to New Technologies? The Case of Photovoltaics
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Universities can be conceived as actors in regional innovative systems with the functions to make available new knowledge for a region, to contribute to the human capital formation by teaching, and to the extension of the knowledge by research. These functions are in particular important concerning the adaptation of new technologies, e.g. photovoltaics. 89 German universities – amongst them 65 universities of applied sciences – meanwhile offer 171 full-time study courses with a degree oriented to photovoltaics. Each federal state has at least one university location offering such degrees. A certain spatial concentration of courses can be shown for Saxony, for the Ruhr Area and for the Rhine Main Region. Almost 90% of the degrees are offered by faculties of engineering. 43% of the universities with degrees in photovoltaics have successfully applied for research grants from the photovoltaics research programs of the federal government. These numbers show a spatial concentration of research in the South whereas the photovoltaics industry is concentrated in the East of Germany. This distribution indicates that the research opportunities tied to the photovoltaics industry are not in the Eastern part of Germany. Further research will have to pay more attention to the role of research institutes.