IWH FDI Micro Database
IWH FDI Micro Database The IWH FDI Micro Database (FDI = Foreign Direct...
Plant-level Employment Development before Collective Displacements: Comparing Mass Layoffs, Plant Closures and Bankruptcies
This article analyzes the development of employment levels and worker flows before bankruptcies, plant closure without bankruptcies and mass layoffs. Utilizing administrative plant-level data for Germany, we find no systematic employment reductions prior to mass layoffs, a strong and long-lasting reduction prior to closures, and a much shorter shadow of death preceding bankruptcies. Employment reductions in closing plants, in contrast to bankruptcies and mass layoffs, do not come along with increased worker flows. These patterns point to an intended and controlled shrinking strategy for closures without bankruptcy and to an unintended collapse for bankruptcies and mass layoffs.
29.03.2018 • 6/2018
Ostdeutsche Flächenländer können mit westdeutschem Wirtschaftswachstum nicht mithalten
Deutschlands Wirtschaft ist im Jahr 2017 um stolze 2,2% gewachsen. Bei näherem Hinsehen offenbart sich aber schnell: Die Wachstumszahlen von Bundesländern wie Bayern (+2,8%), Bremen (+3,3%) und Niedersachsen (+2,5%) verheißen deutlich mehr als die der ostdeutschen Flächenländer, beispielsweise die Sachsens (+1,4%) und vor allem Sachsen-Anhalts (0,8%), wie die heute vorgelegten BIP-Wachstumszahlen des Arbeitskreises Volkswirtschaftliche Gesamtrechnungen der Länder (VGRdL) für 2017 zeigen. Damit geht die Schere zwischen Ost- und Westdeutschland nicht weiter zu. „Der Aufholprozess stagniert; die ostdeutschen Länder sollten ihre Wirtschaftspolitik mehr auf die bessere Qualifizierung der Erwerbstätigen und Innovationen ausrichten“, so Oliver Holtemöller, Vizepräsident des Leibniz-Instituts für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH) und Leiter der Abteilung Makroökonomik.
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Inside Asset Purchase Programs: The Effects of Unconventional Policy on Banking Competition
ECB Working Paper Series,
We test if unconventional monetary policy instruments influence the competitive conduct of banks. Between q2:2010 and q1:2012, the ECB absorbed Euro 218 billion worth of government securities from five EMU countries under the Securities Markets Programme (SMP). Using detailed security holdings data at the bank level, we show that banks exposed to this unexpected (loose) policy shock mildly gained local loan and deposit market shares. Shifts in market shares are driven by banks that increased SMP security holdings during the lifetime of the program and that hold the largest relative SMP portfolio shares. Holding other securities from periphery countries that were not part of the SMP amplifies the positive market share responses. Monopolistic rents approximated by Lerner indices are lower for SMP banks, suggesting a role of the SMP to re-distribute market power differentially, but not necessarily banking profits.
Plant-level Employment Development before Collective Displacements: Comparing Mass Layoffs, Plant Closures, and Bankruptcies
IWH Discussion Papers,
To assess to what extent collective job displacements can be regarded as unanticipated exogenous shocks for affected employees, we analyze plant-level employment patterns before bankruptcy, plant closure without bankruptcy, and mass layoff. Utilizing administrative data covering all West German private sector plants, we find no systematic employment reductions prior to mass layoffs, a strong and long-lasting reduction prior to closures, and a much shorter shadow of death preceding bankruptcy. Our analysis of worker flows underlines that bankruptcies seem to struggle for survival while closures follow a shrinking strategy. We conclude that the scope of worker anticipation of upcoming job loss is smallest for mass layoffs and largest for closures without bankruptcy.
Spinoffs in Germany: Characteristics, Survival, and the Role of their Parents
Small Business Economics,
Using a 50 % sample of all private sector establishments in Germany, we report that spinoffs are larger, initially employ more skilled and more experienced workers, and pay higher wages than other startups. We investigate whether spinoffs are more likely to survive than other startups, and whether spinoff survival depends on the quality and size of their parent companies, as suggested in some of the theoretical and empirical literature. Our estimated survival models confirm that spinoffs are generally less likely to exit than other startups. We also distinguish between pulled spinoffs, where the parent company continues after they are founded, and pushed spinoffs, where the parent company stops operations. Our results indicate that in western and eastern Germany and in all sectors investigated, pulled spinoffs have a higher probability of survival than pushed spinoffs. Concerning the parent connection, we find that intra-industry spinoffs and spinoffs emerging from better-performing or smaller parent companies are generally less likely to exit.
Was wissen wir über Betriebsschließungen? Erkenntnisse für West- und Ostdeutschland
This paper reports the results of several investigations into the determinants of company shutdowns using administrative data for Germany. We show that between 1975 and 2008, the average shutdown rate has risen considerably in western Germany. For most of the time, shutdown rates in eastern Germany were higher, but they have converged to the western level recently. The shutdown risk falls with company size and is substantially higher for young companies. Shutdown rates initially decline as companies age, reaching a minimum at ages 15 to 18, and then rise again. Companies begin to shrink several years before closure, and the remaining workforce becomes on average more skilled, more female and older in companies about to close compared to surviving ones.
Langzeitleistungsbezug und Langzeitarbeitslosigkeit – Bericht zum 11. IWH/IAB-Workshop zur Arbeitsmarktpolitik –
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Im Rahmen des IWH/IAB-Workshops zur Arbeitsmarktpolitik am 1. und 2. Oktober 2014 in Halle (Saale) trafen sich zum elften Mal Vertreter aus Wissenschaft, Politik, Verwaltung und Wirtschaft, um sich aus ökonomischer und soziologischer Sicht über neue Entwicklungen und Erkenntnisse zu den Themen langfristiger Sozialleistungsbezug und Langzeitarbeitslosigkeit auszutauschen. Der Fokus der Workshops, die als Bindeglied zwischen Theorie und Praxis konzipiert sind, lag dabei auf den Ursachen und Konsequenzen der Langzeitarbeitslosigkeit sowie auf möglichen Lösungsansätzen.
Lingering Illness or Sudden Death? Pre-exit Employment Developments in German Establishments
Industrial and Corporate Change,
Using a large administrative data set for Germany, this article compares employment developments in exiting and surviving establishments. Applying a matching approach, we find a clear “shadow of death” effect reflecting lingering illness: in both West and East Germany establishments shrink dramatically already several years before closure, employment growth rates differ strongly between exiting and surviving establishments, and this difference becomes stronger as exit approaches. Moreover, we provide first evidence that prior to exit the workforce becomes on average more skilled, more female, and older in exiting compared to surviving establishments. These effects are more clearly visible in West than in East Germany.
Establishment Survival in East and West Germany: A Comparative Analysis
Using a large administrative dataset, this paper compares the development of new establishments’ survival chances in East and West Germany for the period 1994 – 2008. A central question is whether convergence with respect to survival rates between East and West Germany can be observed. Using methods of survival analysis, I find that new establishments’ survival chances do not differ strongly between East and West Germany at the beginning of the observation period. In 1998 and 1999 the exit hazard increases strongly in East but not in West Germany, which is likely to be due to a change in the subsidy policy affecting East Germany. Since the turn of the millennium, the difference in establishments’ exit hazard between East and West Germany becomes smaller, indicating that there is convergence with respect to establishments’ survival chances.