Kooperation, Vernetzung und Erfolg von Unternehmen - die Biotechnologiebranche
List Forum für Wirtschafts- und Finanzpolitik,
According to theoretical implications the succes of enterprises benefits from co-operation and integration into networks. Enterprises of the biotechnology sector in particular have a high propensity to build up co-operations. Estimations of the growth of firms using co-operation-based and non-co-operation-based factors as independent variables reveal a significantly positive influence of the propensity of co-operation as well as networking. In this regard scientific institutions and universities located in geographical proximity of firms play an important role. From this analysis it can be generalized and concluded, concerning other industries too, that networks emerge automatically under certain conditions. Nevertheless their creation and development should be encouraged, e.g. by efficiency incentives for public research and education of universities as well as an intensification of co-operation and networking between the scientific and the corporate sector. This can promote the technology and human capital transfer.
Innovationskooperationen deutscher Unternehmen im europäischen und innerdeutschen Vergleich
Der Mittelstand an der Schwelle zur Informationsgesellschaft,
The study deals with innovation cooperation as a means to improve the competitiveness of enterprises. The empirical study compares the cooperation behaviour of innovative enterprises in Germany to other West European countries as well as between East and West Germany. The database used is the second Community Innovation Survey (CIS-2) of the EU. While German firms exhibit a cooperation frequency slightly below the average of the European Economic Area (EEA), enterprises in North European countries are by far most active with respect to cooperation frequency. The most important cooperation partner for firms in the EEA are other firms within the enterprise group, followed by suppliers and customers while German firms cooperate most frequently with universities. The comparative investigation of innovation cooperation in East and West Germany shows that East German firms cooperate more often than West German firms. However, a productivity advantage of cooperating firms against non-cooperating firms is only observable in West Germany. In East Germany, cooperating firms even exhibit a lower sales productivity than non-cooperating firms, which is explainable most probably through the fact that cooperation activities translate into productivity advantages only in the long run.
Was bringt die Wissenschaft für die Wirtschaft in einer Region? Regionale Innovations-, Wachstums- und Einkommenseffekte von öffentlichen Hochschulen und Forschungseinrichtungen am Beispiel der Region Halle
Schriften des IWH,
In neueren regionalökonomischen Theorien wird davon ausgegangen, dass die räumliche Nähe sowie Netzwerkbeziehungen zwischen den Unternehmen und anderen Akteu-ren in einer Region eine erhebliche Rolle für regionale Innovations- und Wachstumsprozesse spielen. Als „andere Akteure“ werden nicht zuletzt die öffentlichen Wissen-schaftseinrichtungen (Hochschulen und außeruniversitäre Forschungseinrichtungen) angeführt. Wissenschaftseinrichtungen sind vor allem deshalb für regionale Entwicklungsprozesse von Bedeutung, weil sie zwei Faktoren relativ unmittelbar beeinflussen können, denen heute ein entscheidender Einfluss auf die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung beigemessen wird. Diese Faktoren sind das Humankapital (in der Gestalt von Absolventen der Hochschulen sowie der an den Wissenschaftseinrichtungen tätigen Wissenschaftler) und das von den Wissenschaftseinrichtungen produzierte Wissen, insbesondere das nicht-kodifizierte Wissen („tacit knowledge“), das an die Person eines Forschers und damit an seinen Standort gebunden ist.
EU Eastern Enlargement and Structural Change: Specialization Patterns in Accession Countries and Economic Dynamics in the Single Market
Diskussionsbeiträge des Europäischen Instituts für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW), Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Nr. 106,
This paper analyses key issues of structural change and specialization patterns in the economies of an enlarged European Union. In all transition countries we observe a shift from the agricultural and industrial sector towards the service sector in terms of employment and productivity; however, in some countries a reindustrialisation drives is observed in a late transition stage. While some countries namely the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Poland, Estonia and Slovenia, have improved their productivity especially in medium-technology-intensive industries and may advance on the technological ladder, others remain unchanged and seem to get locked in labour-intensive industrial sectors. In the context of EU-enlargement, we expect trade creation – going along with a rise of intra-industry trade – and higher FDI-activities. Countries will have to adjust along the logic of comparative advantage, however, technological upgrading and human capital formation are fields in which government can stimulate the direction of comparative advantage. According to the Gerschenkron-hypothesis the accession countries have an “advantage of backwardness. Since accession countries have a low R&D-GDP ratio in the early transition stage rising government expenditures on research and development plus higher education is crucial. We expect the EU-15 countries in general to benefit from enlargement but gains will be asymmetric across countries: economic geography matters. Austria, Germany, the Scandinavian countries, the Netherlands, Italy and France are likely to profit more than the other members of EU-15. Germany and Austria additionally play a particularly crucial role as origins of FDI. Future research should focus on the speed and the scope of structural adjustment.
Public Research Institutions in East Germany: a Promising Base for Economic Upturn?
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
In the 1990s a lot was done to strengthen public research efforts in East Germany. The main indicators relating to public research reflect an ambivalent picture. Investment by universities and public research institutions outside the universities reached a higher level than in West Germany. However, there remains an East-West gap with respect to the capital stock. The per capita stock of R&D staff in the university sector reached almost the level in the old Länder. With respect to the university R&D in engineering sciences, among those fields of university research which are particularly business-related, per capita stock of staff as well as per capita investment in the Eastern German Länder are above the West German level. In university natural science the East-West pattern of the R&D input factors mentioned is reversed. The receipts of the universities acquired from research contracts, which may be used as an indicator to assess the quality of public research, reveal shortcomings. These shortcomings, though these have been partly caused by the transitional situation in East Germany`s universities, where new institutions were built up only gradually. The R&D institutions outside the universities are obviously better equipped than such institutions in West Germany.
The visible advantages offered by public sector research institutions in East Germany might be used much more intensively to foster the economic reconstruction in East Germany. In parallel with this, the remaining shortcomings of public R&D in East Germany should be eliminated. If reductions in universities´ capacities (due, for instance, to a declining number of persons who have a university entrance qualification) seem to be inevitable, the consequences of such restrictions should be carefully reconsidered.
Evaluationsbericht: Das Internet strategisch richtig nutzen
Diskussionsbeiträge des Europäischen Instituts für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW), Universität Potsdam, Nr. 79,
Using the internet and internetbased services is now common among medium and large firms in Germany. However, for smaller firms (SMEs) the use of internet application is a new challenge to which they still have to respond – this is crucial for remaining competitive. The project Adapt2 “Using the Internet in an adaquate and strategic way“ looks into the effects of SMEs' basic steps towards the internet. We focus on adequacy of government promotion of SME activities – specifically firms from the sector producing machinery and equipment are analysed. The project was led by ZENIT GmbH, Mülheim a.d. Ruhr; the whole project also involved participation of the European Institute for International Economic Relations (EIIW). As part of a broader evaluation EIIW also conducted surveys – both focussing on firms involved in the project and in other firms from the same sector. It turned out that specific measures of support indeed were helpful for SMEs; obviously, there is additional need for further practical support and research.
Explaining Regional Disparities in Housing Prices across German Districts
IZA Institute of Labor Economics,
Over the last decade, German housing prices have increased unprecedentedly. Drawing on quality-adjusted housing price data at the district level, we document large and increasing regional disparities: growth rates were higher in 1) the largest seven cities, 2) districts located in the south, and 3) districts with higher initial price levels. Indications of price bubbles are concentrated in the largest cities and in the purchasing market. Prices seem to be driven by the demand side: increasing population density, higher shares of academically educated employees and increasing purchasing power explain our findings, while supply remained relatively constrained in the short term.