Firm Social Networks, Trust, and Security Issuances
European Journal of Finance,
We observe that public firms are more likely to issue seasoned stocks rather than bonds when theirs boards are more socially-connected. These connected issuers experience better announcement-period stock returns and attract more institutional investors. This social-connection effect is stronger for firms with severe information asymmetry, higher risk of being undersubscribed, and more visible to investors. Our conjecture is this social-network effect is driven by trust in issuing firms. Given stocks are more sensitive to trust, these trusted firms are more likely to issue stocks than bonds. Trustworthiness plays an important role in firms’ security issuances in capital markets.
Banking Globalization, Local Lending, and Labor Market Effects: Micro-level Evidence from Brazil
Journal of Financial Stability,
Recent financial crises have prompted the interest in understanding how banking globalization interacts with domestic institutions in shaping foreign shocks’ transmission. This paper uses regional banking data from Brazil to show that a foreign funding shock to banks negatively affects lending by their regional branches. This effect increases in the presence of frictions in internal capital markets, which affect branches’ capacity to access funding from other regions via intra-bank linkages. These results also matter on an aggregate level, as municipality-level credit and job flows drop in exposed regions. Policies aiming to reduce the fragmented structure of regional banking markets could moderate the propagation of foreign shocks.
14.10.2021 • 26/2021
East German economy less affected by supply bottlenecks than German economy as a whole, but lower vaccination rates pose risks – Implications of the Joint Economic Forecast Autumn 2021 and of Länder data from recent publications of the Federal Statisti
Supply bottlenecks affect production in the manufacturing sector in East Germany somewhat less than in Germany as a whole. With 1.8%, the increase in Gross Domestic Product in eastern Germany in 2021 therefore is likely to be lower than in Germany as a whole (2.4%); this gap is likely to enlarge in 2022, when supply bottlenecks hamper less (East Germany: 3.6%, Germany 4.8%).
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14.10.2021 • 25/2021
Crisis is gradually being overcome – align actions to lower growth
The Corona pandemic still shapes the economic situation in Germany. A complete normalisation of contact-intensive activities is not to be expected in the short term. In addition, supply bottlenecks are hampering manufacturing for the time being. The German economy will reach normal capacity utilisation in the course of 2022. In their autumn report, the leading economic research institutes forecast that Gross Domestic Product (GDP) will rise by 2.4% in 2021 and by 4.8% in 2022.
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Krise wird allmählich überwunden – Handeln an geringerem Wachstum ausrichten
Dienstleistungsauftrag des Bundesministeriums für Wirtschaft und Energie,
Die wirtschaftliche Lage in Deutschland ist nach wie vor von der Corona-Pandemie gekennzeichnet. Nachdem neue Infektionswellen die Erholung im Winterhalbjahr 2020/2021 verzögert hatten, steigt das Bruttoinlandsprodukt seit dem Abebben des Infektionsgeschehens im Frühjahr nun wieder deutlich. Allerdings behindern im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe Lieferengpässe bei Vorprodukten die Produktion, sodass nur die konsumnahen Dienstleistungsbranchen zulegen. Im Winterhalbjahr dürfte die Erholung weiterhin gebremst werden. So ist davon auszugehen, dass in der kalten Jahreszeit die Aktivität im Dienstleistungsgewerbe auch bei geringem Infektionsgeschehen unter dem sonst üblichen Niveau bleiben wird. Zudem werden die Lieferengpässe die Produktion im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe vorerst weiter belasten. Im kommenden Jahr dürften die Beeinträchtigungen durch Pandemie und Lieferengpässe nach und nach zurückgehen, sodass die Normalauslastung wieder erreicht wird. Insgesamt dürfte das Bruttoinlandsprodukt im Jahr 2021 um 2,4% und im Jahr 2022 um 4,8% zulegen. Die Institute rechnen – nicht zuletzt infolge erhöhter Energiekosten – mit einem Anstieg der Verbraucherpreise um 3% im laufenden Jahr und um 2,5% im Jahr 2022. Das Defizit der öffentlichen Haushalte dürfte von 4,9% in Relation zum Bruttoinlandsprodukt im laufenden Jahr auf 2,1% im Folgejahr zurückgehen. Angesichts der kräftigen Zunahme des nominalen Bruttoinlandsprodukts wird die öffentliche Schuldenstandsquote wohl von 71% im Jahr 2021 auf 67% im Jahr 2022 abnehmen. Zwar dürften die wirtschaftlichen Folgen der Corona-Krise mit der Rückkehr zur Normalauslastung allmählich überwunden werden, aber die Herausforderungen des Klimawandels und das demografisch bedingt absehbar niedrigere Wirtschaftswachstum führen zu geringeren Konsummöglichkeiten.
06.10.2021 • 24/2021
IWH Bankruptcy Update: Bankruptcy Figures Remain Low; More Manufacturing Jobs Impacted
The number of corporate bankruptcies in Germany remained near to a historic low in September. However, there was a considerable increase in the share of manufacturing jobs impacted by bankruptcy. These are the key findings of the IWH Bankruptcy Update, published by the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH), which provides monthly statistics on corporate bankruptcies in Germany.
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14.09.2021 • 23/2021
Production bottlenecks delay recovery
The German recovery made good progress over the summer 2021. However, bottlenecks in sea transport and the production of intermediate goods are weighing on world trade. The rise in raw material prices has prompted inflation rates to spike, and an increase in new infections is clouding the outlook again. A weak final quarter is therefore to be expected. The Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) forecasts that German gross domestic product (GDP) will increase by 2.2% in 2021 and 3.6% in 2022 (East Germany: 1.8% and 2.8%).
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The Impact of Delay: Evidence from Formal Out-of-Court Restructuring
IWH Discussion Papers,
Bankruptcy restructuring procedures are used in most legal systems to decide the fate of businesses facing financial hardship. We study how bargaining failures in such procedures impact the economic performance of participating firms in the context of Croatia, which introduced a „pre-bankruptcy settlement“ (PBS) process in the wake of the Great Recession of 2007 - 2009. Local institutions left over from the communist era provide annual financial statements for both sides of more than 180,000 debtor-creditor pairs, enabling us to address selection into failed negotiations by matching a rich set of creditor and debtor characteristics. Failures to settle at the PBS stage due to idiosyncratic bargaining problems, which effectively delays entry into the standard bankruptcy procedure, leads to a lower rate of survival among debtors as well as reduced employment, revenue, and profits. We also track how bargaining failures diffuse through the network of creditors, finding a significant negative effect on small creditors, but not others. Our results highlight the impact of delay and the importance of structuring bankruptcy procedures to rapidly resolve uncertainty about firms‘ future prospects.
07.09.2021 • 22/2021
IWH Bankruptcy Update: Ongoing Decline in Bankruptcy Statistics
After hitting an all-time low in July, the number of firms declaring bankruptcy in Germany fell yet again in August. A new low was also registered in the number of impacted jobs. These are the headline findings of the IWH Bankruptcy Report, published by the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH), which provides a monthly update on German bankruptcy statistics.
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O Brother, Where Start Thou? Sibling Spillovers on College and Major Choice in Four Countries
Quarterly Journal of Economics,
Family and social networks are widely believed to influence important life decisions, but causal identification of those effects is notoriously challenging. Using data from Chile, Croatia, Sweden, and the United States, we study within-family spillovers in college and major choice across a variety of national contexts. Exploiting college-specific admissions thresholds that directly affect older but not younger siblings’ college options, we show that in all four countries a meaningful portion of younger siblings follow their older sibling to the same college or college-major combination. Older siblings are followed regardless of whether their target and counterfactual options have large, small, or even negative differences in quality. Spillover effects disappear, however, if the older sibling drops out of college, suggesting that older siblings’ college experiences matter. That siblings influence important human capital investment decisions across such varied contexts suggests that our findings are not an artifact of particular institutional detail but a more generalizable description of human behavior. Causal links between the postsecondary paths of close peers may partly explain persistent college enrollment inequalities between social groups, and this suggests that interventions to improve college access may have multiplier effects.