Effects of Sanctions between the EU and Russia on the German Economy
The mutual imposition of economic sanctions strengthened the slow down of German exports to Russia and exposed output as well as jobs inside the value chains to danger. The amount of potential losses is estimated by the the use of input-output-analysis.
Private Equity, Jobs, and Productivity
American Economic Review,
Private equity critics claim that leveraged buyouts bring huge job losses and few gains in operating performance. To evaluate these claims, we construct and analyze a new dataset that covers US buyouts from 1980 to 2005. We track 3,200 target firms and their 150,000 establishments before and after acquisition, comparing to controls defined by industry, size, age, and prior growth. Buyouts lead to modest net job losses but large increases in gross job creation and destruction. Buyouts also bring TFP gains at target firms, mainly through accelerated exit of less productive establishments and greater entry of highly productive ones.
21 years old and a little bit more realistic?
Deutschland Archiv – Zeitschrift für das vereinigte Deutschland,
East Germany`s development in the market economy shows ambiguous results. Although the re-structured economy proved itself to be growth orientated, the sustainable growth lead over the West German economy was attained only in the first half of the 1990s. Later on the catching up became smaller and smaller. Moreover employment recovered for the first time in the last upsw-ing before the global economic and financial crisis after the tremendous losses of jobs in the transitional period. Last but not least, as a result of low birth rates and emigration the shrinking number of inhabitants in East Germany could not be stopped. In the final analysis, long lasting repercussions of the inherited structures from GDR times are responsible for the backwardness of this region as well as the way of the economic transition in East Germany and regional differences in the settlements. Against this background the accomplishment of equal living standards in the eastern and western part of Germany should not be assessed in the light of medium per capita measures, but specified by comparisons between commensurable regions.
International Fragmentation of Production and the Labour Input into Germany’s Exports – An Input-Output-analysis
IWH Discussion Papers,
The import penetration of exports has become a topic of public debate, particularly in the context of Germany’s position as one of the world’s leading exporters. The growth in the volume of intermediate products purchased from abroad for subsequent processing into export goods in Germany seems to be undermining the importance of exports as a driver of domestic production and employment. The gains that arise from an increase in exports seem to have been offset by the losses caused by the crowding out of local production by imports. Empirical evidence on the impact of this international integration of the goods market on the German labour market is ambiguous. Short-term negative effects on employment are claimed to be offset by the long-term benefit that the jobs lost in the short run will eventually be replaced by higher-skilled jobs with better
perspectives. Against this background, the following hypothesis is tested empirically: Germany is poor in natural resources, but rich in skilled labour. In line with the Heckscher- Ohlin theory, Germany should therefore specialize in the production of export goods and services that are relatively intensive in these factors and should import those goods and services that are relatively intensive in unskilled labour. The empirical part of the paper deals with the extent of the German export penetration by imports. At first, it analyses by what ways imports are affecting the exports directly and indirectly and shows the consequences of import penetration of exports for the national output and employment. Secondly, consequences for employment are split in different skill types of labour. These issues are discussed with the standard open static inputoutput- model. The data base is a time series of official input-output tables. The employment effects for Germany divided by skill types of labour are investigated using skill matrices generated by the authors.
A Minimum Wage of 7.50 Euro per Hour Does Particularly Affect Jobs in Business Related Services
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
In the present public debate on the implementation of a minimum wage, different proposals concerning its design and level are discussed. Often, a minimum wage of 7.50 euro per hour is mentioned. Thereby, it is widely unknown how many employees do earn less than 7.50 euro per hour in different branches. Their jobs could be affected by the introduction of a minimum wage. By means of data of the German Socio-Economic Panels Study, it can be shown that the shares of the low-income earners are considerably high in some branches. Especially in Eastern Germany, in branches like retail trades as well as business related services many employees earn less than 7.50 euro per hour. Wage increases on the demanded minimum level would probably cause employment losses in these labour-intensive branches.
Globalisierung und Beschäftigung – eine Untersuchung mit der Input-Output-Methode.
IMK Studies Nr. 1/2008,
In the course of globalization imports play a more and more important role as inputs for national production. In the wake of this development, domestic products are substituted by imported goods and jobs are moved abroad. However, this enables domestic companies to become more competitive and to improve their position in national and international markets. Applying input-output techniques this paper shows that, although imports have risen considerably, the increase in domestic production induced by exports had an overall positive impact on the German economy. This holds not only for the trade balance of production sectors that are oriented to export activities, but for the trade balance as a whole. Overall, high export surpluses were accompanied by increases in value added. Furthermore, especially in the second half of the last decade employment benefited much; while the rising import of intermediate and finished goods has caused many job cuts, on balance the increase in employment in the wake of the strong export expansion has outdone the losses.
Even though many industrialized economies in Europe have made similar experiences, the impacts on job markets differed considerably. For example, while the strength of the increase in employment in the Netherlands was similarly to that in Germany, labour market improvements in France were much weaker, not least due to noticeably lower export surpluses.