29.09.2022 • 24/2022
The East German economy expanded strongly in the first half of 2022, but falls into recession in the second half of the year ‒ Implications of the Joint Economic Forecast Autumn 2022 and of Länder data from recent publications of the Statistical Office
The energy crisis is pushing the German economy into recession. This also affects the economy in East Germany. According to the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH), East German production will expand at a slightly stronger rate of 1.5% than in Germany as a whole. For the coming year, the decline in East Germany is expected to be less pronounced than in the west at 0.1% (Germany: ‒0.4%). For 2024, the economists forecast a growth of 1.7% (Germany: 1.9%).
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08.09.2022 • 22/2022
Energy crisis in Germany
Dwindling gas supplies from Russia and soaring prices for gas and electricity are leading to massive real income losses and a recession in Europe and Germany. The Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) forecasts that German gross domestic product (GDP) will in-crease by 1.1% in 2022 and decrease by 1.4% in 2023. Consumer prices are expected to rise by 7.9% in 2022 and 9.5% in 2023.
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Regionale Effekte einer durch einen Lieferstopp für russisches Gas ausgelösten Rezession in Deutschland
IWH Policy Notes,
Ein Stopp der russischen Gaslieferungen würde zu einer Rezession der deutschen Wirtschaft führen. Nicht alle Regionen wären davon gleich betroffen: Vor allem wäre dort, wo das Verarbeitende Gewerbe ein großes Gewicht hat, mit einem deutlich stärkeren Einbruch der Wirtschaftsleistung zu rechnen als andernorts. Deshalb wäre Westdeutschland und dort insbesondere der Süden stärker betroffen als der Osten Deutschlands. Dagegen spielt für die Frage, wie viele Arbeitsplätze durch einen bestimmten Rückgang der Wertschöpfung gefährdet sind, die Höhe der Arbeitsproduktivität eine ausschlaggebende Rolle.
13.04.2022 • 9/2022
Economy in East Germany will not suffer more from the war in Ukraine than in Germany as a whole – Implications of the Joint Economic Forecast Spring 2022 and new data for the East German economy
The recovery of the East German economy, like that of Germany as a whole, will weaken considerably due to Russia’s war in Ukraine. However, the economic slump and recovery were not as pronounced as in West Germany. In 2021, East German output grew by 2.3%, less than in Germany as a whole (2.9%). According to the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH), GDP growth in East Germany is also likely to be lower than in Germany as a whole in 2022 (2.1% in East Germany vs. 2.7% in Germany) and 2023 (2.5% vs. 3.1%).
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17.03.2022 • 6/2022
Price shock jeopardises recovery of German economy
Russia’s war in Ukraine is hitting the German economy primarily via an energy price shock, but also by disrupting trade flows and causing general uncertainty. At the same time, however, the economy is receiving a strong boost from the lifting of many pandemic restrictions. The Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) forecasts that gross domestic product will increase by 3.1% in 2022. The consumer price index will be 4.8% higher than one year ago. The war affects the East German eco-nomy about as hard as the economy in Germany as a whole.
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Banking Deregulation and Consumption of Home Durables
IWH Discussion Papers,
We exploit the spatial and temporal variation of the staggered introduction of inter state banking deregulation across the U.S. to study the relationship between credit constraints and consumption of durables. Using the American Housing Survey from 1981 to 1989, we link the timing of these reforms with evidence of a credit expansion and household responses on many margins. We find evidence that low-income households are more likely to purchase new appliances after the deregulation. These durable goods allowed households to consume less natural gas and spend less time in domestic activities after the reforms.
Stricter rules for banks can relieve real estate markets Exuberant price levels in the German real estate market could...
Exporting Liquidity: Branch Banking and Financial Integration
The Journal of Finance,
Using exogenous liquidity windfalls from oil and natural gas shale discoveries, we demonstrate that bank branch networks help integrate U.S. lending markets. Banks exposed to shale booms enjoy liquidity inflows, which increase their capacity to originate and hold new loans. Exposed banks increase mortgage lending in nonboom counties, but only where they have branches and only for hard‐to‐securitize mortgages. Our findings suggest that contracting frictions limit the ability of arm's length finance to integrate credit markets fully. Branch networks continue to play an important role in financial integration, despite the development of securitization markets.
International Climate Policy after Kyoto – Economic Challenges Ahead
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
The signs are increasing that the gain in greenhouse gas emissions since the beginning of the 20th century causes the average global temperature to rise. Limiting the temperature rise to 2°C should at least avoid the worst consequences of global warming. This would require the greenhouse gas emissions to reach their maximum value by no later than 2015 and to be dramatically reduced worldwide from that time until 2050. From the economic perspective, there are a number of important questions: In the first place, how can the initial situation be described in economic categories? Therefore, the emissions should first of all be identified by region and sector and thereupon, the adjustment possibilities are to be outlined. Which costs and which revenues are associated with climate policy? The bandwidth of the estimated damage is between 5% and 20% of global gross domestic product (GDP) annually in the case of unmitigated climate change. These estimates are compared to around 1% of global GDP, which would be spent to stabilize the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. How are the global targets to be distributed regionally and sectorally, and which economic instruments are recommended for this purpose? Obviously, tradable permits are preferred. Here, the initial assignment and the nature of the allocation on the one hand and the tradability on the other play a prominent role. What politico-economic conflicts arise and what recommendations can economists give to solve these conflicts goal-oriented? Finally, what is to recommend in terms of political economy in order to remain credible in particular in the sense of an international climate agreement?
The Contestable Markets Theory - Efficient Advice for Economic Policy
During the nineties of the last century several formerly monopolistic markets (telecommunication, electricity, gas, and railway) have been deregulated in Germany based on European directives and theoretically inspired by the theory of contestable markets. The original contestable market theory implied three assumptions necessary to be satisfied to establish potential competition: Free market entry, market exit possible without any costs, and the price adjustment lag exceeding the entry lag. Our analysis shows that if the incumbent reduces its prices slowly (high adjustment lag) and the market entry can be performed quickly (low entry lag), a new competitor will be able to earn back sunk costs. Therefore it is not necessary that all three conditions be complied with for potential competition to exist. Applying this „revised“ contestable market theory to the deregulated sectors in Germany, natural monopolies can be identified in telecommunication sections local loops and local/regional connection networks, in the national electricity grid and the regional/local electricity distribution networks, in the national and regional/local gas transmission/distribution sections, and in the railroad network. These sections are not contestable due to sunk costs, expected high entry lags and a probably short price adjustment lag. They are identified as bottlenecks, which should be regulated. The function of system operators in energy and railroad are closely related to the non-contestable monopolistic networks.